By Jueseppi B.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. Organisms that have been genetically modified include micro-organisms such as bacteria and yeast, insects, plants, fish, and mammals. GMOs are the source of genetically modified foods, and are also widely used in scientific research and to produce goods other than food. The term GMO is very close to the technical legal term, ‘living modified organism’ defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, which regulates international trade in living GMOs (specifically, “any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology”).
This article focuses on what organisms have been genetically engineered, and for what purposes. The article on genetic engineering focuses on the history and methods of genetic engineering, and on applications of genetic engineering and of GMOs. Both articles cover much of the same ground but with different organizations (sorted by organism in this article; sorted by application in the other). There are separate articles on genetically modified crops, genetically modified food, regulation of the release of genetic modified organisms, and controversies.
There are controversies around GMOs on several levels, including whether making them is ethical, whether food produced with them is safe, whether such food should be labeled and if so how, whether agricultural biotech is needed to address world hunger now or in the future, and more specifically to GM crops—intellectual property and market dynamics; environmental effects of GM crops; and GM crops’ role in industrial agricultural more generally.
Commercial sale of genetically modified foods began in 1994, when Calgene first marketed its Flavr Savr delayed ripening tomato. Typically, genetically modified foods are transgenic plant products: soybean, corn, canola, andcotton seed oil. These may have been engineered for faster growth, resistance to pathogens, production of extra nutrients, or any other beneficial purpose. GM livestock have also been experimentally developed, although as of July 2010 none are currently on the market.
There is broad scientific consensus that food on the market derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food. However, critics have objected to GM foods on several grounds, including safety issues, ecological concerns, and economic concerns raised by the fact that GM plants (and potentially animals) that are food sources are subject to intellectual property law.
- 1 Method of production
- 2 History
- 3 Foods with protein or DNA remaining from GMOs
- 4 Highly processed derivatives containing little to no DNA or protein
- 5 Foods processed using genetically engineered products
- 6 Foods made from animals fed with GM crops or treated with bovine growth hormone
- 7 Foods made from GM animals
- 8 Detection
- 9 Regulation
- 10 Controversies
The genetically modified foods controversy is a dispute over the relative advantages and disadvantages of food derived from GMOs, genetically modified crops used to produce food and other goods, and other uses of genetically modified organisms in food production. The dispute involves consumers, farmers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations and scientists. The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified (GM) food are: risk of harm from GM food, whether GM food should be labeled, the role of government regulators, the effect of GM crops on the environment, the impact of GM crops for farmers, including farmers in developing countries, the role of GM crops in feeding the growing world population, and GM crops as part of the industrial agriculture system.
There is broad scientific consensus that food on the market derived from GM crops pose no greater risk than conventional food. No reports of ill effects from eating GM food have been documented in the human population.
Supporters of food derived from GMOs hold that food is as safe as other foods and that labels send a message to consumers that GM food is somehow dangerous. They trust that regulators and the regulatory process are sufficiently objective and rigorous, and that risks of contamination of the non-GM food supply and of the environment can be managed. They trust that there is sufficient law and regulation to maintain competition in the market for seeds, believe that GM technology is key to feeding a growing world population, and view GM technology as a continuation of the manipulation of plants that humans have conducted for millennia.
Some advocacy groups such as Greenpeace and the World Wildlife Fund have concerns that risks of GM food have not been adequately identified and managed, and have questioned the objectivity of regulatory authorities. Opponents of food derived from GMOs are concerned about the safety of the food itself and wish for GMOs to be banned or at least labeled on the food packages of foods they are in. They have concerns about the objectivity of regulators and rigor of the regulatory process, about contamination of the non-GM food supply, about effects of GMOs on the environment, about industrial agriculture in general, and about the consolidation of control of the food supply in companies that make and sell GMOs, especially in the developing world. Some are concerned that GM technology tampers too deeply with nature. Other environmental groups, including The Nature Conservancy and former anti-GMO campaigner Mark Lynas support the use of GMOs as beneficial for the environment.
Here’s How to Find Out If It’s a GMO Product
Non-GMO advocate Jeffrey Smith helps you figure out if the products you are buying are genetically modified or not. Few products are labeled so it’s hard to tell on your own.
GMO Foods are Toxic!
Published on Aug 9, 2012
http://www.ihealthtube.com Dr. Leonard Coldwell talks about the dangers of genetically modified foods. He talks about why these foods will cause cancer and what other toxic properties these foods have.
Seeds of Death: Unveiling The Lies of GMO’s – Full Movie
Published on May 23, 2013
The world’s leading Scientists, Physicians, Attorneys, Politicians and Environmental Activists expose the corruption and dangers surrounding the widespread use of Genetically Modified Organisms in the new feature length documentary, “Seeds of Death: Unveiling the Lies of GMOs”.
Senior Executive Producer / Writer / Director: Gary Null PhD
Executive Producer/Writer/Co-Director: Richard Polonetsky
Producers: Paola Bossola, Richard Gale, James Spruill, Patrick Thompson, Valerie Van Cleve
Editors: James Spruill, Patrick Thompson, Richie Williamson, Nick Palm
Music: Kevin MacLeod (Incompetech.com), Armando Guarnera
Graphics: Jay Graygor
Just Say No to GMO music video http://www.NaturalNews.com/NoGMO
Uploaded on Oct 13, 2010
Just Say No to GMO music video and song by Mike Adams, the Health Ranger, editor of NaturalNews.com. Written and performed by Mike Adams, this song exposes the lies of the GMO biotech industry, specifically mentioning Monsanto and genetically modified corn. It also features rap lined from Jeffrey Smith of the Institute for Responsible Technology, author of Seeds of Deception.
Filed under: Bad News, Campaign Ads, Causes, Cooking, Cooking Food Recipes, Economy, Education, Health, News, World News Tagged: | Flavr Savr, Food, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified food, Genetically modified organism, GMO, Monsanto, Organism