By Jueseppi B.
Throughout the month Of February, TheObamaCrat™ will post a daily series called The Black History Moment Series. Each day for 28 days of this historic month you will be given the food of Black History to satisfy your hunger for knowledge.
Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #13: The History Of Feeding An African Slave.
Weekly Food Ration For A Slave
This display approximates the ration of food (cornmeal, fish, and pork) given to each adult slave per week. Strangely enough, wealthy politicians in Washington D.C. assume people on SNAP can survive on even less than this in 2014.
The importance of a balanced diet cannot be overstated. A balanced diet provides natural disease prevention, weight control and proper sleep. A balanced diet also enables you to live longer. A balanced diet is also important because it enables you to meet your daily nutritional needs and perform at your full capacity. This level of high performance was of the utmost importance to American slave-owners as it would be economically beneficial to have slaves who could work at full capacity for the average 54 hours a week. Therefore, slave-owners could not spare much when it came to properly feeding their plentiful workers. An incorrect myth about slavery in the United States is that slave-owners starved their slaves. This is an illogical assumption as slaves were not so dispensable or quickly replaced and would not financially benefit slave-owners.
But lets be honest, not all slave owners followed this common sense rule about the Negrias they owned. Many plantation owners gave their slaves table scraps, the left overs from each meal. Field Negros ate a lot worse that House Negros. THAT was the major reason why House Negros wanted to be House Negros.
There were essentially two different kinds of slaves, those that worked in the fields (field slaves), and those that worked in the slave master’s house (house slaves).
“House Negro” (also “House Nigger“) is a pejorative term for a black person, used to compare someone to a house slave of a slave owner from the historic period of legal slavery in the United States. The term comes from a speech “Message to the Grass Roots” (1963) by African Americanactivist Malcolm X, wherein he explains that during slavery, there were two kinds of slaves: “house Negroes”, who worked in the master’s house, and “field Negroes” (also “field Niggers“), who performed the manual labor outside.
He characterizes the house Negro as having a better life than the field Negro, and thus unwilling to leave the plantation and potentially more likely to support existing power structures that favor whites over blacks. Malcolm X identified with the field Negro. The term is used against individuals, in critiques of attitudes within the African American community, and as a borrowed term for critiquing parallel situations.
The following excerpt comes from my hero, Minister Malcolm x as he describes the difference between the two types of slave. The entire speech can be read here…[read entire speech].
So you have two types of Negro. The old type and the new type. Most of you know the old type. When you read about him in history during slavery he was called “Uncle Tom.” He was the house Negro. And during slavery you had two Negroes. You had the house Negro and the field Negro.
The house Negro usually lived close to his master. He dressed like his master. He wore his master’s second-hand clothes. He ate food that his master left on the table. And he lived in his master’s house–probably in the basement or the attic–but he still lived in the master’s house.
So whenever that house Negro identified himself, he always identified himself in the same sense that his master identified himself. When his master said, “We have good food,” the house Negro would say, “Yes, we have plenty of good food.” “We” have plenty of good food. When the master said that “we have a fine home here,” the house Negro said, “Yes, we have a fine home here.” When the master would be sick, the house Negro identified himself so much with his master he’d say, “What’s the matter boss, we sick?” His master’s pain was his pain. And it hurt him more for his master to be sick than for him to be sick himself. When the house started burning down, that type of Negro would fight harder to put the master’s house out than the master himself would.
But then you had another Negro out in the field. The house Negro was in the minority. The masses–the field Negroes were the masses. They were in the majority. When the master got sick, they prayed that he’d die. [Laughter] If his house caught on fire, they’d pray for a wind to come along and fan the breeze.
If someone came to the house Negro and said, “Let’s go, let’s separate,” naturally that Uncle Tom would say, “Go where? What could I do without boss? Where would I live? How would I dress? Who would look out for me?” That’s the house Negro. But if you went to the field Negro and said, “Let’s go, let’s separate,” he wouldn’t even ask you where or how. He’d say, “Yes, let’s go.” And that one ended right there.
So now you have a twentieth-century-type of house Negro. A twentieth-century Uncle Tom. He’s just as much an Uncle Tom today as Uncle Tom was 100 and 200 years ago. Only he’s a modern Uncle Tom. That Uncle Tom wore a handkerchief around his head. This Uncle Tom wears a top hat. He’s sharp. He dresses just like you do. He speaks the same phraseology, the same language. He tries to speak it better than you do. He speaks with the same accents, same diction. And when you say, “your army,” he says, “our army.” He hasn’t got anybody to defend him, but anytime you say “we” he says “we.” “Our president,” “our government,” “our Senate,” “our congressmen,” “our this and our that.” And he hasn’t even got a seat in that “our” even at the end of the line. So this is the twentieth-century Negro. Whenever you say “you,” the personal pronoun in the singular or in the plural, he uses it right along with you. When you say you’re in trouble, he says, “Yes, we’re in trouble.”
But there’s another kind of Black man on the scene. If you say you’re in trouble, he says, “Yes, you’re in trouble.” [Laughter] He doesn’t identify himself with your plight whatsoever.
SOURCE: X, Malcolm. “The Race Problem.” African Students Association and NAACP Campus Chapter. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan. 23 January 1963.
Food and Slave Culture
In order to round out their diet, slaves had to find ways to supplement the rations they were receiving. They did this through cultivation of their own garden plots as well as hunting, fishing, domestication of animals, and on occasion, stealing. Most of these activities took place after the slaves had completed their days work in the fields.
Garden plots played an important role in supplementing the diet of the slave. In some cases, slave owners who could reduce the cost of feeding slaves by forcing them to cultivate their own vegetables insisted upon these plots. Plots varied in size, generally one to two acres, but sometimes larger, although on rice plantations in Georgia the average plot size was reported to be half an acre. Some groups of slaves shared a communal plot.
Slaves of the American South grew a variety of vegetables in these garden plots. What could be grown depended on where the plantation was located. For example, coastal areas offered different planting climates than did inland areas. Coastal areas allowed for the growth of green vegetables like cabbage, collard and turnip greens. Green leafy vegetables, in particular, provide an abundance of vitamins and nutrients. These garden crops often helped offset the nutritional imbalance that standard slave rations created.
Provision crops such as turnips (roots and tops), peas, and sweet potatoes were grown on the plantation and served as supplements to enrich the slave’s diet. Turnips have a high iron and vitamin content and may have saved many a slave from having a serious deficiency disease. Peas are fairly high in proteins and contain some vitamins, and sweet potatoes are an excellent source of several nutrients and vitamins.
Some of the items grown were ‘native’ to American soil, while many had their origins in Africa, as well as other continents. Food items such as rice, okra, black-eyed peas, yams, kidney and lima beans, watermelon, liquorice and sesame all have African origins. Slaves were also able to find wild fruits and vegetables, on occasion.
Some African-American foods of the time were surprising and somewhat unusual. In some parts of Africa the eating of clay is a common practice. Some enslaved people brought this practice with them to America. Clay eating remains an important practice for a number of southern African-American even today.
Hunting and Fishing
Hunting and Fishing further helped slaves to supplement their diets, for those whose masters allowed such activities. On some plantations, slave owners trusted their slaves enough to provide them with guns for hunting. Slaves hunted and fished for a variety of animal life. As was the case with gardens, location played a role in what food sources were available for the slaves to hunt or fish, although the diet was quite similar.
Many of the animals consumed in the different parts of the south are the same, but one could hypothesize that slave diets were likely made up of larger amounts of one kind of animal depending on location. For instance, slaves living near rivers, streams, ponds, or coastal areas likely supplemented their diets with more seafood and aquatic reptiles. Conversely, slaves further inland or near wooded areas likely supplemented their diets with more wild game such as deer and birds.
In many cases slaves were forced to hunt at night because it was the only ‘free time’ they had. Harris has noted that “One reason that possum figured so prominently in slave menu’s is that it is a nocturnal creature and could be hunted when the slaves weren’t working.” The archeological findings above also show a common theme for all plantation areas of the south – the likelihood of domesticated animals playing a part in the slave diet.
Some slave owners allowed their slaves to keep domesticated animals such as pigs, cows, or chickens. For the African-Americans who had them, these animals helped to add variety and nutrition to their often-meager diet. In some cases slaves also stole from their masters and neighbors to supplement their diet.
Soul Foods And Dishes
This is a list of soul foods and dishes. Soul food is an African-American cuisine that primarily originated in the Southern United States and is very similar to the cuisine of the Southern United States. It uses a variety of ingredients, some of which are indigenous to Africa and were brought over by slaves, and others which are indigenous to the Americas and borrowed from Native American cuisine.
A dish consisting of chicken pieces usually from broiler chickens which have been floured or battered and then pan-fried, deep fried, or pressure fried. The seasoned breading adds a crisp coating or crust to the exterior.
Typically smoked or boiled, ham hocks generally consist of much skin, tendons and ligaments, and require long cooking through stewing, smoking or braising to be made palatable. The cut of meat can be cooked with greens and other vegetables or in flavorful sauces.
Cured and smoked cheeks of pork. It is not actually a form of bacon, but is associated with the cut due to the streaky nature of the meat and the similar flavor. Hog jowl is a staple of soul food, but is also used outside the United States, for example in the Italian dish guanciale.
The stomach lining of a pig; it is very muscular and contains no fat. As a soul food dish, hog maw has often been coupled with chitterlings, which are pig intestines. In the book Plantation Row Slave Cabin Cooking: The Roots of Soul Food hog maw is used in the Hog Maw Salad recipe.
Such as chitterlings or “chitlins” (the cleaned and prepared intestines of pigs, slow cooked and also often eaten with a vinegar-based sauce or sometimes parboiled, then battered and fried) or hog maws (the muscular lining of the pig’s stomach, sliced and often cooked with chitterlings).
Vegetables and legumes
Often mixed into Hoppin’ John and other types of rice and beans dishes.
A staple vegetable of Southern U.S. cuisine, they are often prepared with other similar green leaf vegetables, such as kale, turnip greens, spinach, and mustard greens in “mixed greens”. They are generally eaten year-round in the South, often with a pickled pepper vinegar sauce. Typical seasonings when cooking collards can consist of smoked and salted meats (ham hocks, smoked turkey drumsticks, pork neckbones, fatback or other fatty meat), diced onions and seasonings.
A dish served in the Southern United States consisting of black-eyed peas (or field peas) and rice, with chopped onion and sliced bacon, seasoned with a bit of salt. Some people substitute ham hock,fatback, or country sausage for the conventional bacon; a few use green peppers or vinegar and spices. Smaller than black-eyed peas, field peas are used in the Low Country of South Carolina and Georgia; black-eyed peas are the norm elsewhere.
A species of mustard plant. Sub varieties include southern giant curled mustard, which resembles a headless cabbage such as kale, but with a distinct horseradish-mustard flavor. It is also known as green mustard cabbage.
Turnip leaves are sometimes eaten as “turnip greens”, and they resemble mustard greens in flavor. Turnip greens are a common side dish in southeastern US cooking, primarily during late fall and winter. Smaller leaves are preferred; however, any bitter taste of larger leaves can be reduced by pouring off the water from initial boiling and replacing it with fresh water. Varieties specifically grown for the leaves resemble mustard greens more than those grown for the roots, with small or no storage roots.
Breads and grains
A quickbread often baked or made in a skillet, commonly made with buttermilk and seasoned with bacon fat; inspired by the great availability of corn in the Americas and by Native American cultures. Pictured is skillet cornbread.
A cooked coarsely ground cornmeal of Native American origin.
Also known as Johnnycake, it’s a type of cornbread which is very thin in texture, and fried in cooking oil in a skillet, whose name is derived from field hands’ often cooking it on a shovel or hoe held to an open flame.
Balls of deep-fried cornmeal, usually with salt and diced onions. Typical hushpuppy ingredients include cornmeal, wheat flour, eggs, salt, baking soda, milk or buttermilk, and water, and may include onion, spring onion (scallion), garlic, whole kernel corn, and peppers.
Made of fruits typically found in the southern U.S., especially peach.
This is a small list of foods left for the slave to live on. As you can see from this list, beef was omitted because it was a prized possession of the caucasian slave master/plantation owner. Also, as you can see from this list, the present day health liabilities of the Black population was fully caused by the diet of our slave forefathers. Fats, high caloric intake, pork/pig consumption….all lead to high blood pressure, obesity and heart conditions not to mention diabetes.
The slaves of yesteryear are directly related to the present day slaves….slaves to a soul food diet that while tastes delicious, is bad for most health issues.
Southern Slave Recipes:
Verbal exchanges of recipes on Southern plantations led to the development of an international African cooking style in America. Slaves enjoyed cooking pork, yams, sweet potatoes, hominy, corn, ashcakes, cabbage, hoecakes, collards and cowpeas. On these plantations, cooking was done on an open fireplace with large swing blackpots and big skillets.
African American cooking techniques and recipes were also influenced by Native American Indians all across the United States. In many areas, local Indians taught slaves how to hunt, and to cook with native plants. Indian cooking techniques were later introduced into the southern society by black American cooks. Dishes such as corn pudding, succotash, pumpkin pie, Brunswick Stew and hominy grits are a few examples of Native American dishes found in African American cooking.
After working long days in the fields, a simple yet hearty soup like Okra Soup was often prepared by slave women for supper.
4 cups Cold Water
4 cups Okra, finely cut
4 cups Tomato Pulp
Wiley’s Greens Seasoning
Add Wiley’s Greens Seasoning to water and allow to come to a boil. Add Okra and Tomato mixture. Simmer on medium for 1 hour or until thick. Serve in bowl over rice or corn.
“POT LIKKER “
“Pot Likker” and Corn Meal Balls were often served on Sunday’s after church. This was considered a real treat for the slaves. A dish like this took longer to prepare and was reserved for Sunday dinner when slaves had more time to prepare a special meal.
In a large pot or Dutch oven, bring to boil 2 quarts of cold water. Add 1 1oz. package of Wiley’s Greens Seasoning to the water. Wash tender turnip greens in several waters to clean well. Place greens in seasoned water and let boil 1 hour. When greens are tender pour off ¾ of seasoned water into separate bowl. This seasoned water is “Pot Likker.” Set greens aside.
CORN MEAL BALLS FOR POT LIKKER
1 cup Plain Corn Meal
½ teaspoon Salt
2 Tablespoons Butter
Add salt to corn meal and stir in melted butter. Slowly add water to shaped dough into small biscuit-sized balls. Drop balls into reserved “Pot Likker.” “Pot Likker” should be boiling. Cook in covered dish for twenty minutes. Serve with Turnip Greens.
APPLE POT PIE
Apple Pot Pie was one of the slaves’ favorite desserts. Desserts were a common feature on Sunday’s during the summer months when fruits were plentiful. The pleasing aroma of cooked apples often-filled slave cabins and campsites in the late summer and early fall when apples were in abundance.
6 Baking Apples – peeled, cored and cut into small pieces
4 cups Flour
10 Tablespoons of Butter
2 packages Wiley’s Apple Pie Spice
1 cup Sugar
In large bowl, make dough of flower, 7 TB of butter, salt and enough water to form dough. Roll thin on floured cutting board and cut into two-inch squares. Place apples in separate bowl and sprinkle with Wiley’s Apple Pie Spice and sugar on each apple layer. In a large pot or Dutch oven alternate layers of dough squares and sprinkled apples. Bottom layer in pot should be apples followed by dough squares on top. The top layer should be dough squares. Place remaining butter (3 TB) dotted on dough layer on top. Fill pot (dutch oven) half filled with water. Cover and cook on medium until apples are done.
The recipe for Plantation Gumbo was different just about every time depending on the season and the availability of certain types of vegetables. The following recipe reflects how the dish was prepared in late summer.
2 Tablespoons Melted Butter
1 Onion diced
2 Cups of Tomatoes, unpeeled and cubed
2 Cups Okra finely cut
2 Red Potatoes (peeled and cubed)
1 Carrot (peeled and sliced)
1 Quart hot water
1 Cup diced Celery
Wiley’s Beans & Peas Seasoning
In small saucepan, fry onions in the melted butter until browned. In large pot or Dutch oven add water and Wiley’s Seasonings. Bring to a boil; add browned onion mixture and vegetables to water. Cook slowly, stirring occasionally, until thick.
“Soul Food” This term originated from the cuisine developed by the African slaves mainly from the American South. A dark and despicable period in the history of the United States resulted in a cuisine fashioned from the meager ingredients available to the slave and sharecropper black families. The meat used was the least desireable cuts and the vegetables, some bordering on weeds, were all that was available for the black slaves to prepare nutritious meals for their families. From these meager ingredients evolved a cuisine that is simple yet hearty and delicious.
CHITLINS AND MAW
2 pounds pork maw 2 tablespoons salt 2 teaspoons crushed red pepper flakes 4 stalks celery, finely chopped 4 small onions, finely chopped 4 small green bell peppers, cored, seeded and finely chopped 5 pounds precooked chitlins 1. Wash the pork maw thoroughly in several changes of cold water. Drain thoroughly and place in a large pot with enough cold water to cover by 2 inches. Add the salt, red pepper, and half of the celery, onions, and green peppers. Heat to boiling, reduce to simmering, and cook, covered, until tender. This could take anywhere from 1 1/2 to 3 hours, depending on the maw. 2. Meanwhile, wash the chitlins carefully in several changes of cold water. Drain thoroughly. Refrigerate until needed. 3. Drain the cooked maw and reserve the cooking liquid. Place the chitlins in a large pot and add enough of the maw cooking liquid to cover by 2 inches. Add the remaining celery, onions, and green peppers. Heat to boiling, reduce to simmering, and cook, covered, until tender, about 1 hour and 30 minutes. 4. Meanwhile, when the pork maw is cool enough to handle, cut it into1-inch pieces. 5. When the chitlins are tender, stir in the maw pieces and simmer togethera few minutes. Check the seasoning and serve hot.
RED BEANS AND RICE
1 Cup red kidney beans, dried 5 Cups water 1 smoked ham hocks 2 Tablespoons salt 1/2 Teaspoon red pepper flakes, crushed 1/2 Teaspoon dried thyme 2 Cups rice (Uncle Bens)
1) Soak the beans overnight in 5 cups of water in a cool place or in the refrigerator. 2) Drain the beans and place them in a 5-quart pot. Add 4 cups of water, the ham hock, salt, red pepper, and thyme. Heat to boiling , then reduce the heat to a bare simmer. Cover and cook until the beans are almost tender, about 1 hour. 3) Stir 1 cup of water and the rice into the beans . Heat to boiling, reduce the heat to a simmer, and cook, covered, until the rice and beans are tender and the liquid is absorbed, about 25 minutes. Check the seasonings. If you like, you may remove the meat from the ham hock and mix it into the rice. Serve hot.
Honey Peach and Blackberry Cobbler
- 2 1/4 cups all-purpose flour, divided
- 8 cups chopped peeled peaches (about 4 pounds)
- 1/4 cup honey
- 3 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
- 3/4 teaspoon salt, divided
- 3 cups blackberries
- Cooking spray $
- 3/4 cup granulated sugar
- 1 tablespoon grated lemon rind
- 1 teaspoon baking powder
- 6 tablespoons chilled butter, cut into small pieces
- 1 1/4 cups low-fat buttermilk
- 2 tablespoons turbinado sugar
- Preheat oven to 400°.
- Lightly spoon flour into dry measuring cups; level with a knife.
- Combine 1/4 cup flour, peaches, honey, juice, and 1/4 teaspoon salt in a large bowl; toss gently. Let stand 15 minutes. Fold in blackberries. Spoon mixture into a 13 x 9-inch baking dish coated with cooking spray.
- Combine 2 cups flour, 1/2 teaspoon salt, granulated sugar, rind, and baking powder in a medium bowl, stirring with a whisk. Cut in butter with a pastry blender or 2 knives until mixture resembles coarse meal. Add buttermilk, and stir just until moist.
- Drop dough onto peach mixture to form 12 mounds. Sprinkle mounds with turbinado sugar. Bake at 400° for 40 minutes or until bubbly and golden.
- 2 1/4 cups self-rising white cornmeal mix
- 1/2 cup chopped green bell pepper
- 1/2 medium onion, chopped $
- 1 teaspoon salt
- 1/4 teaspoon ground red pepper
- 1/2 teaspoon ground black pepper
- 1 cup buttermilk
- 2 large eggs $
- Vegetable oil
- Combine first 6 ingredients in a bowl; make a well in center of mixture.
- Whisk together buttermilk and eggs; add to dry ingredients, stirring just until moistened. Let mixture stand 30 minutes.
- Pour oil to a depth of 2 inches into a Dutch oven; heat to 375°.
- Drop batter by heaping teaspoonfuls into hot oil. Fry, in batches, 2 minutes on each side or until golden. Drain on wire racks over paper towels; serve hot.
Collards With Red Onions
- 3 (16-oz.) packages fresh collard greens
- 2 medium-size red onions, finely chopped
- 2 tablespoons vegetable oil
- 2 1/2 cups vegetable broth
- 1/4 cup cider vinegar
- 2 tablespoons dark brown sugar
- 1 1/2 teaspoons salt
- 1/2 teaspoon dried crushed red pepper
- 1. Trim and discard thick stems from bottom of collard green leaves. Thoroughly wash collard greens.
- 2. Sauté onions in hot oil in a Dutch oven over medium-high heat 8 to 10 minutes or until tender. Add broth and next 4 ingredients.
- 3. Gradually add collards to Dutch oven, and cook, stirring occasionally, 8 to 10 minutes or just until wilted. Reduce heat to medium, and cook, stirring occasionally, 1 hour or until tender.
Southern Turnip Greens and Ham Hocks
- 1 3/4 poundsham hocks, rinsed
- 2 quarts water
- 2 bunches fresh turnip greens with roots (about 10 pounds)
- 1 tablespoon sugar
- Bring ham hocks and 2 quarts water to a boil in an 8-quart Dutch oven. Reduce heat, and simmer 1 1/2 to 2 hours or until meat is tender.
- Remove and discard stems and discolored spots from greens. Chop greens, and wash thoroughly; drain. Peel turnip roots, and cut in half.
- Add greens, roots, and sugar to Dutch oven; bring to a boil. Reduce heat; cover and simmer 45 to 60 minutes or until greens and roots are tender.
- 6 (4- to 6-ounce) catfish fillets
- 2 cups milk $
- 2 cups yellow cornmeal
- 1 tablespoon seasoned salt
- 2 teaspoons pepper
- 1/2 teaspoon onion powder
- 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder
- 1 teaspoon salt
- Vegetable oil
- Place catfish fillets in a single layer in a shallow dish; cover with milk. Cover and chill 1 hour.
- Combine cornmeal and next 4 ingredients in a shallow dish.
- Remove catfish fillets from refrigerator, and let stand at room temperature 10 minutes. Remove from milk, allowing excess to drip off. Sprinkle evenly with 1 teaspoon salt.
- Dredge catfish fillets in cornmeal mixture, shaking off excess.
- Pour oil to depth of 1 1/2 inches into a large skillet; heat to 350°. Fry fillets, in batches, about 3 to 4 minutes on each side or until golden brown. Drain on wire racks over paper towels.
Bourbon Bread Pudding
- 2 tablespoons butter, softened
- 4 cups fat-free milk
- 9 cups (1/2-inch) cubed French bread
- 2 cups sugar
- 2 teaspoons vanilla extract
- 4 large egg whites
- 1 large egg
- 1/2 cup raisins
- 3/4 cup sugar
- 6 tablespoons butter
- 1 large egg
- 1/4 cup bourbon
- Preheat oven to 350°.
- To prepare pudding, spread 2 tablespoons butter onto bottom and sides of a 13 x 9-inch baking dish. Set aside.
- Heat milk in a heavy saucepan over medium-high heat to 180° or until tiny bubbles form around edge (do not boil). Place bread in a large bowl; pour hot milk over bread.
- Combine 2 cups sugar and next 3 ingredients (through 1 egg) in a medium bowl, stirring with a whisk until well blended. Gradually add the egg mixture to milk mixture, stirring constantly with a whisk. Stir in raisins; pour into prepared dish. Place dish in a roasting pan; add hot water to pan to a depth of 1/2 inch. Bake at 350° for 50 minutes or until browned and set.
- To prepare sauce, combine 3/4 cup sugar, 6 tablespoons butter, and 1 egg in a small, heavy saucepan over low heat. Cook 4 minutes or until a candy thermometer registers 165° and mixture is thick, stirring constantly. Remove from heat; stir in bourbon.
Ok, now I must go eat.
In Case You Missed This Series….Black History Month 2014 Presents: Celebrating Black History Month; The Black History Moment Series.
Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #4 The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.
Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #5 Rosewood, Florida. The Rosewood Massacre.
Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #6: The Destruction of The Black Family.
Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #7: Black Indians In The United States.
Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #8: Charles H. Wright Museum Of African American History.
Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #9: The History Of Slavery In America.
Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #10: Black Women Who Were Lynched In America.
Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #12: The Tulsa Oklahoma Race Riot of 1921.
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