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Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #22: Dr. John Hope Franklin, African American Scholar And Historian.


 

By Jueseppi B.

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Throughout the month Of February, TheObamaCrat™ will post a daily series called The Black History Moment Series. Each day for 28 days of this historic month you will be given the food of Black History to satisfy your hunger for knowledge. 

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #22 Dr. John Hope Franklin. African American Scholar And Historian.

 

John Hope Franklin

1915–2009, the dean of 20th-century African-American historians, b. Rentiesville, Okla., grad. Fisk Univ. (A.B., 1935), Harvard (M.A., 1936; Ph.D., 1941). Franklin served on the faculties of his alma mater (1936–37), St. Augustine’s College (1939–43), North Carolina College (1943–47), Howard Univ. (1947–56), Brooklyn College (1956–64), and the Univ. of Chicago (1964–82) before assuming (1982) the James B. Duke Professorship of History at Duke. He became professor emeritus in 1985, but taught at Duke’s law school from 1985 to 1992. Franklin was also president of Phi Beta Kappa (1973–76), the American Historical Association (1978–79), and several other scholarly organizations.

 

Franklin’s many publications focused on the history of the American South, on slavery and Reconstruction, and on the African-American contribution to the development of the United States. His best-known book, the pioneering From Slavery to Freedom (1947; 8th ed. 2000), revolutionized the understanding of African-American history and changed the way the subject is taught. Among Franklin’s other works are The Militant South: 1800–1860 (1956), Reconstruction after the Civil War (1961),The Emancipation Proclamation (1963), Color and Race (1968), Racial Equality in America (1976), Race and History(1989), The Color Line (1993), and In Search of the Promised Land (with L. Schweninger, 2005). He also edited a number of books, including the autobiography (1997) of his father, an Oklahoma lawyer.

 

Active in the civil-rights movement, Franklin provided historical information vital to the brief for the landmark Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans. case, marched with Martin Luther King, and testified repeatedly at congressional hearings regarding racial issues. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1995 and was appointed President Clinton’s adviser on race two years later. His papers form the nucleus of Duke’s John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African-American Documentation.

 

John Hope Franklin

 

 

Early life and education

Franklin was born in Rentiesville, Oklahoma to attorney, Buck (Charles) Colbert Franklin and his wife Mollie Parker Franklin and named after John Hope. He graduated from Booker T. Washington High School in Tulsa, Oklahoma. He graduated from Fisk University in 1935 and gained a doctorate in history in 1941 from Harvard University.

 

 

Career

“My challenge,” Franklin said, “was to weave into the fabric of American history enough of the presence of blacks so that the story of the United States could be told adequately and fairly.”

 

In his autobiography, Franklin described a series of formative incidents where he confronted racism while seeking to volunteer his services at the beginning of the Second World War. He attempted to respond to the Navy’s search for qualified clerical workers, but after he presented his extensive qualifications, the Navy recruiter told him that he was the wrong color for the position. He was similarly unsuccessful in finding a position with a War Department historical project. When he went to have a blood test as required for the draft, the doctor initially refused to allow him into his office. Afterward, Franklin took steps to avoid the draft, on the basis that the country did not respect him or have an interest in his well-being, because of his color.

 

In the early 1950s, Franklin served on the NAACP Legal Defense Fund team led by Thurgood Marshall, which helped develop the sociological case for Brown v. Board of Education. This led to the 1954 United States Supreme Court decision ending the legal segregation of black and white children in public schools.

 

 

Professor and researcher

Franklin’s teaching career began at Fisk University. During WWII, he taught at St. Augustine’s College and North Carolina College.

 

From 1947 to 1956, he taught at Howard University. In 1956, Franklin was selected to chair the history department at Brooklyn College, the first person of color to head a major history department. Franklin served there until 1964, when he was recruited by the University of Chicago. He spent 1962 as a visiting professor at the University of Cambridge, holding the Professorship of American History and Institutions.

 

David Levering Lewis, who has won the Pulitzer Prize for history, said that while he was deciding to become a historian, news came that Franklin, his mentor, had been named departmental chairman at Brooklyn College.

 

“Now that certainly is a distinction. It had never happened before that a person of color had chaired a major history department. That meant a lot to me. If I had doubt about (the) viability of a career in history, that example certainly helped put to rest such concerns.”

 

In researching his prize-winning biography of W. E. B. Du Bois, Lewis said he became aware of Franklin’s

 

“courage during that period in the 1950s when Du Bois became an un-person, when many progressives were tarred and feathered with the brush of subversion. John Hope Franklin was a rock; he was loyal to his friends. In the case of W. E. B. Du Bois, Franklin spoke out in his defense, not (about) Du Bois’s communism, but of the right of an intellectual to express ideas that were not popular. I find that admirable. It was a high risk to take and we may be heading again into a period when the free concourse of ideas in the academy will have a price put upon it. In the final years of an active teaching career, I will have John Hope Franklin’s example of high scholarship, great courage and civic activism.”

 

From 1964 through 1968, Franklin was a professor of history at the University of Chicago, and chair of the department from 1967 to 1970. He was named to the endowed position of John Matthews Manly Distinguished Service Professor, which he held from 1969 to 1982. He was appointed to the Fulbright Board of Foreign Scholarships, 1962–69, and was its chair from 1966 to 1969.

 

In 1976, the National Endowment for the Humanities selected Franklin for the Jefferson Lecture, the U.S. federal government’s highest honor for achievement in the humanities. Franklin’s three-part lecture became the basis for his book Racial Equality in America.

 

Franklin was appointed to the U.S. Delegation to the UNESCO General Conference, Belgrade (1980).

 

In 1983, Franklin was appointed the James B. Duke Professor of History at Duke University. In 1985, he took emeritus status from this position. During this same year he helped to establish the Durham Literacy Center and served on its Board until his death in 2009.

 

Franklin was also Professor of Legal History at the Duke University Law School from 1985 to 1992.

 

 

Racial Equality in America

Racial Equality in America is the published lecture series that Franklin presented in 1976 for the Jefferson Lecture sponsored by the National Endowment for Humanities. The book divides into three lectures, given in 3 different cities, chronicling the history of race in the United States from revolutionary times to 1976. These lectures explore the differences between some of the beliefs related to race with the reality documented in various historical and government texts as well as data gathered from census, property, and literary sources. The first lecture is titled “The Dream Deferred” and discusses the period from the revolution to 1820. The second lecture is titled “The Old Order Changeth Not” and discusses the rest of the 19th century. The third lecture is titled “Equality Indivisible” and discusses the 20th century.

 

 

Later life and death

In 2005, at the age of 90, Franklin published and lectured  on his new autobiography, Mirror to America: The Autobiography of John Hope Franklin. In 2006, he received the John W. Kluge Prize and as the recipient lectured on the successes and failures of race relations in America inWhere do We Go from Here? In 2008, Franklin endorsed presidential candidate Barack Obama.

 

Franklin died at Duke University Medical Center on the morning of March 25, 2009.

 

 

John Hope Franklin

John Hope Franklin

John Hope Franklin (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Born January 2, 1915
RentiesvilleOklahoma, U.S.
Died March 25, 2009 (aged 94)
Duke University Medical Center
DurhamNorth Carolina, U.S.
Alma mater Fisk University (B.A., 1935);
Harvard University (M.A., 1936;

Ph.D., 1941)

Occupation Scholar, historian, author, professor
Spouse(s) Aurelia Whittington Franklin

(m. 1940; d. 1999)

Honors

 

Honors

 

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In 1991, Franklin’s students honored him with a festschrift The Facts of Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of John Hope Franklin (edited by Eric Anderson & Alfred A. Moss, Jr. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, c1991).

 

Franklin served as president of the American Historical Association (1979), the American Studies Association(1967), the Southern Historical Association (1970), and the Organization of American Historians (1975). He was a member of the board of trustees at Fisk University, the Chicago Public Library, and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra Association.

 

Frankin was elected as a foundation member of Fisk’s new chapter of Phi Beta Kappa in 1953, when Fisk became the first historically black college to have a chapter of the honor society. In 1973-76, he served as President of the United Chapters of Phi Beta Kappa.

 

Additionally, Franklin was appointed to serve on national commissions, including the National Council on the Humanities, the President’s Advisory Commission on Ambassadorial Appointments, and One America: The President’s Initiative on Race.

 

Franklin was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. He was an early beneficiary of the fraternity’s Foundation Publishers, which provides financial support and fellowship for writers addressing African-American issues.

 

In 1962 honored as an outstanding historian, Franklin became the first black member of the exclusive Cosmos Club in Washington, D.C.

 

The John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture resides at the Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library and contains his personal and professional papers. The archive is one of three academic units named after Franklin at Duke. The others are the John Hope Franklin Center for Interdisciplinary and International Studies, which opened in February 2001 and the Franklin Humanities Institute. Franklin had previously rejected Duke’s offer to name a center for African-American Studies after him, saying that he was a historian of America and the world, too.

 

In 1978, he was inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame.

 

In 1994, the Society of American Historians (founded by Allan Nevins and other historians to encourage literary distinction in the writing of history) awarded Franklin its Bruce Catton Prize for Lifetime Achievement.

 

In 1995, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP.

 

In 1995, Franklin was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor.

 

In 1995, he received the Chicago History Museum “Making History Award” for Distinction in Historical Scholarship.

 

In 1997, Franklin was selected to receive the Peggy V. Helmerich Distinguished Author Award, a career literary award given annually by the Tulsa Library Trust. Franklin was the first (and so far only) native Oklahoman to receive the award. During his visit to Tulsa to accept the award, Franklin made several appearances to speak about his childhood experiences with racial segregation, as well as his father’s experiences as a lawyer in the aftermath of the 1921 Tulsa race riot.

 

In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante included Franklin on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.

 

Oklahoma Governor Brad Henry presented the Governor’s Arts Award to Dr. Franklin in 2004.

 

On May 20, 2006, Franklin was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters at Lafayette College‘s 171st Commencement Exercises.

 

On November 15, 2006, John Hope Franklin was announced as the third recipient of the John W. Kluge Prize for lifetime achievement in the study of humanity. He shared the prize with Yu Ying-shih.

 

 

Personal life

According to a DNA analysis, Franklin was descended mainly from people of Sierra Leone.

 

Marriage and family

Franklin met and courted Aurelia Whittington at Fisk. They married on June 11, 1940 at her parents’ home in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Their only child, John Whittington Franklin, was born August 24, 1952. Aurelia was a librarian. Their marriage lasted 59 years, until January 27, 1999, when she succumbed to a long illness.

 

john-hope-franklin2

 

Keeping Hope Alive: A Conversation With Dr. John Hope Franklin (5/30/2007)

 

Published on Jun 2, 2013

Keeping Hope Alive: A Conversation With Dr. John Hope Franklin (5/30/2007)

“My Challenge Was To Weave Into The Fabric Of American History Enough Of The Presence Of Blacks So That The Story Of The United States Could Be Told Adequately And Fairly.”
~Dr. John Hope Franklin

 

Dr. John Hope Franklin Passed Away March 25, 2009 at the age of 94 after living a truly purpose driven life… Hopefully and finally he has reunited with his beloved wife, Aurelia…

 

 

 

Mirror to America by John Hope Franklin–Audiobook Excerpt

 

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Published on Apr 12, 2012

Listen to this audiobook excerpt and hear John Hope Franklin read from his book Mirror to America: The Autobiography of John Hope Franklin–ninety years of American history as lived by the nation’s preeminent African American historian and winner of the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

 

 

 

Dr. John Hope Franklin Tribute | PBS

 

Uploaded on Mar 25, 2009

In a special tribute to Dr. John Hope Franklin, a conversation with the dean of African American historians about the racism he encountered.

 

 

 

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Black History Month 2014 Presents: Celebrating Black History Month; The Black History Moment Series, #1 thru #21….

 

In Case You Missed This Series….Black History Month 2014 Presents: Celebrating Black History Month; The Black History Moment Series.

 

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TheObamaCrat™ Wake-Up Call For HuMpDaY The 19th Of February, 2014. North American Leaders Summit In Toluca, Mexico.


 

By Jueseppi B.

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White House Schedule – Wednesday February 19th, 2014

 

 

THE WHITE HOUSE
Office of the Press Secretary
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
February 19th, 2014

 

DAILY GUIDANCE AND SCHEDULE FOR
FRIDAY, JANUARY 19th, 2014

 

On Wednesday, the President will travel to Toluca, Mexico, to participate in the North American Leaders Summit. At the Summit, the President will discuss a wide range of issues including economic competitiveness and citizen security with Mexican President Peña Nieto and Canadian Prime Minister Harper. The President will return to The White House around 2 AM EST.

 

 

Wednesday, February 19th, 2014 All Times ET

 

8:15 am:  The POTUS departs White House.
12:10 pm CT: The POTUS Arrives Toluca, Mexico.

 

12:35 pm CT: The POTUS Greets Mexican President Nieto and begins bilateral meetings; Palacio de Gobierno del Estado de Mexico, Toluca, Mexico.

 

2:45 pm CT: The POTUS Attends a working lunch; Cosmovitral, Botanical Gardens, Toluca, Mexico.

 
4:20 pm CT: The POTUS Participates in a walk and talk with Prime Minister Harper of Canada.

 
4:50 pm CT: The POTUS Delivers remarks with President Nieto and Prime Minister Harper.

 
5:30 pm CT: The POTUS Participates in the Trilateral North American Leaders Summit Meeting Courtyard, Palacio de Justicia, Toluca, Mexico.

 
7:15 pm CT: The POTUS Holds a press conference with President Nieto and Prime Minister Harper; Patio Cental, Palacio de Gobierno, Toluca, Mexico.

 
8:50 pm CT: The POTUS Departs Mexico, for the United States.

 
2:05 am: The POTUS Arrives White House.

 

 

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North American Leaders’ Summit

 

U.S. President Barack Obama at the North American Leaders' Summit

U.S. President Barack Obama at the North American Leaders’ Summit

 

The North American Leaders’ Summit is the official name of the trilateral annual summit between the prime minister of Canada, and the presidents of Mexico and the United States. It started as the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America, a continent-level dialogue, founded on 23 March 2005. The summit is often referred to as the Three Amigos Summit in the popular press. This year, February 19, 2014, the summit is held in  TolucaMexico State, Mexico.

 

 

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Pres. Obama Joint News Conference w/ Mexican/Canadian Leaders

President Obama will hold a joint news conference in Toluca, Mexico with his North American counterparts, Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto and Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper.

 

 

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Readout of the President’s Call to President Peña Nieto of Mexico

This morning President Obama spoke by phone with Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto to discuss progress on the bilateral agenda the two leaders set when they met in May 2013.  The President congratulated President Peña Nieto on the important reforms he has undertaken in his first year in office.

 

The President noted he is looking forward to traveling to Toluca, Mexico on February 19, 2014, to participate in the North American Leaders Summit.  At the Summit, the President looks forward to discussing with Mexican President Peña Nieto and Canadian Prime Minister Harper a range of issues important to the daily lives of all of North America’s people, including economic competitiveness, entrepreneurship, trade and investment, and citizen security

 

 

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President Obama to visit Mexico in February for leaders summit

 

(Reuters) – President Barack Obama will visit Mexico in February to attend a North American leaders’ summit, the White House said on Monday.

 

White House spokesman Jay Carney said Obama would travel to Toluca, Mexico, on February 19.

 

Obama will attend the annual North American leaders summit along with Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto and Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper.

 

The U.S. president visited Mexico last May and held talks with Pena Nieto and the two leaders emphasized economic issues in a relationship that has long been dominated by security concerns.

 

Carney said the leaders will discuss a range of issues such as economic competitiveness, trade and investment and citizen security.

 

Obama called Pena Nieto on Monday to congratulate him on “the important reforms” the Mexican leader has undertaken in his first year in office, the White House said in a statement.

 

Pena Nieto last month signed into law a radical reform of the country’s energy market, ending a 75-year oil and gas monopoly in hopes of attracting investments to boost production.

 

Ratings agency Standard & Poor’s raised its credit rating for Mexico by a notch on the energy reform, calling it a watershed moment that boosts the country’s long-term growth prospects.

 

The energy sector overhaul is a centerpiece of a broad range of reforms pushed by the Mexican leader as part of an effort to boost growth in Latin America’s second-largest economy.

 

Pena Nieto has overseen passage of a major education overhaul, shaken up oversight of the telecommunications market, and pushed through reforms of the tax system and banking rules.

 

 

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White House Week Ahead Schedule – February 20th &21st, 2014

 

 

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On Thursday, the President will return from Toluca, Mexico and attend the Democratic Governors Association dinner.

 

On Friday, the President will meet with the Democratic governors in town for the annual National Governors Association Winter Meeting to discuss his Opportunity for All agenda and the Year of Action.

 

 

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Biden to visit Granite City, Ill. on Wednesday.

 

WASHINGTON–Vice President Joe Biden travels to Granite City, Illinois on Wednesday to visit America’s Central Port, a rail, river road shipping complex on the Illinois side of the Mississippi River.

 

From the White House: “The Vice President’s visit will mark the fifth anniversary of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and highlight the need for continued investment in infrastructure to create jobs and grow our economy. Secretary of Transportation Anthony Foxx and former Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood will also attend.”

 

 

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The White House Blog

 

New Funding to Increase Access to Mental Health Services and New Protections Under the Health Care Law

 

Stefanie Feldman
February 18, 2014
07:22 PM EST

 

So far this year, the Administration has taken three key steps as part of our ongoing effort to increase access to mental health services.

 

First, the President signed an omnibus appropriations bill, securing $115 million for new mental health initiatives that the President and Vice President proposed in January 2013 as part of their comprehensive plan to reduce gun violence. This funding will have a real impact in communities across the country, where it will be used to train more mental health professionals and help educators and other adults who work with youth recognize the early signs of mental health problems and refer young people to appropriate help when needed.  The funds will also be used for a new initiative which will support innovative state-based approaches to making sure young people ages 16 to 25 who are at high risk for mental illness don’t fall through the cracks of our mental health system when they leave school or home.

 

Second, on January 31, with funding from the Affordable Care Act, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services made $50 million available to help Community Health Centers across the country establish or expand mental and behavioral health services for people living with mental illness or addiction. Using these funds, Health Centers can hire new mental health professionals and add mental health and substance use disorder services. This new funding was first announced by Vice President Biden last December. At that time, the Vice President also announced that the U.S. Department of Agriculture has set a new goal of financing $50 million for the construction, expansion, or improvement of mental health facilities in rural areas over the next three years.

 

And finally, on January 1, 2014, the Affordable Care Act went into full effect. For the first time ever, Americans across the country can no longer be denied health insurance or charged more based on a pre-existing mental illness. Health plans offered through the new Health Insurance Marketplace are now required to cover ten categories of essential health benefits, including mental health and substance use disorder services.

 

The Administration will continue to look for steps we can take to help prevent mental health problems and make sure people experiencing mental health problems get the help they need. As the Vice President said in December, “The fact that less than half of children and adults with diagnosable mental health problems receive the treatment they need is unacceptable. The President and I have made it a priority to do everything we can to make it easier to access mental health services.”

 

A Look At What They’re Saying About myRA Across the Country

 

Kicking Vehicle Efficiency into High Gear

 

Congressional Budget Office Report Finds Minimum Wage Lifts Wages for 16.5 Million Workers

 

We the People Response: Reaffirming the White House’s Commitment to Net Neutrality

 

The Fifth Anniversary of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

 

Administration-Wide Response to the Drought

 

 

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President Obama Speaks on Improving Fuel Efficiency for American Trucks

 

Press Briefing

 

President Obama Responds to the California Drought

 

President Obama Participates in a Roundtable Discussion on the California Drought

 

 

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President Obama holds a meeting with African American civil rights leaders in the Roosevelt Room of the White House, February 18. Flanking the President are Attorney General Eric Holder and Senior Advisor Valerie Jarrett with Rev. Al Sharpton, president of National Action Network, also attending.

President Obama holds a meeting with African American civil rights leaders in the Roosevelt Room of the White House, February 18. Flanking the President are Attorney General Eric Holder and Senior Advisor Valerie Jarrett with Rev. Al Sharpton, president of National Action Network, also attending.

President Barack Obama delivers remarks on improving the fuel efficiency of American trucks, at the Safeway Distribution Center in Upper Marlboro, Md., Feb. 18, 2014. (Official White House Photo by Amanda Lucidon)

President Barack Obama delivers remarks on improving the fuel efficiency of American trucks, at the Safeway Distribution Center in Upper Marlboro, Md., Feb. 18, 2014. (Official White House Photo by Amanda Lucidon)

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Barack After Dark™: The Prez Is As Busy As Ever. CongrASS Is AS Invisible AS Usual.


 

By Jueseppi B.

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President Obama Speaks on Improving Fuel Efficiency for American Trucks

February 18, 2014 | 16:20 |Public Domain

 

President Obama lays out additional details for the plan he announced in the 2014 State of the Union to improve the fuel efficiency of American trucks and bolster energy security, cut carbon pollution, and spur manufacturing innovation.

 

 

FACT SHEET: Opportunity For All: Improving the Fuel Efficiency of American Trucks – Bolstering Energy Security, Cutting Carbon Pollution, Saving Money and Supporting Manufacturing Innovation

 

Remarks by the President on Fuel Efficiency Standards of Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

 

 

Press Briefing

February 18, 2014 | 53:55 |Public Domain

 

White House Press Briefings are conducted most weekdays from the James S. Brady Press Briefing Room in the West Wing.

 

 

 

Lie Witness News — Presidents’ Day Edition

 

Published on Feb 18, 2014

We went out onto Hollywood Blvd. to tell people that President Franklin Delano Roosevelt died today. He actually died in 1945 but that didn’t stop people from remembering him fondly.

 

 

 

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The White House Blog

 

 

A Look At What They’re Saying About myRA Across the Country

 

Brandi Hoffine
February 18, 2014
06:20 PM EST

 

Ed. note: This is cross-posted from Treasury Notes, the official blog of the U.S. Department of the TreasurySee the original post.

 

Last month in the State of the Union, President Obama laid out specific executive actions he will take to put more Americans back to work and expand opportunity so that every American can get ahead. Speaking about the importance of securing a dignified retirement, the President announced that he would direct Treasury to create a new way for working Americans to start their own retirement savings. According to independent estimates, about half of all workers and 75 percent of part-time workers lack access to employer-sponsored retirement plans. That is why the Obama administration designed myRA (my Retirement Account) – a simple, safe, and affordable retirement savings account that will be offered through employers to help low- and moderate- income Americans begin to save for retirement.

 

Below is a look at what newspaper editorial boards and financial columnists across the country are saying.

 

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Kicking Vehicle Efficiency into High Gear

 

Dan Utech
Dan Utech

February 18, 2014
03:45 PM EST

 

President Barack Obama delivers remarks on improving the fuel efficiency of American trucks, at the Safeway Distribution Center in Upper Marlboro, Md., Feb. 18, 2014. (Official White House Photo by Amanda Lucidon)

President Barack Obama delivers remarks on improving the fuel efficiency of American trucks, at the Safeway Distribution Center in Upper Marlboro, Md., Feb. 18, 2014. (Official White House Photo by Amanda Lucidon)

 

When the President took office, the fuel efficiency standards for our cars had been stuck at 27.5 miles per gallon for twenty years – two decades of lost time when it comes to developing new technologies that can get more miles per gallon out of every tankful of gas. That’s why one of the very first actions the President took in office was to direct the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation to work with the auto industry to develop new fuel economy standards for cars and trucks. It was guided by a belief that if this industry was truly going to come back stronger than before – and thrive over the long term – then we had to build the cars of the future right here in America. After all, improving fuel efficiency represents one of the best opportunities we have to reduce our dependence on oil.

 

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With the President’s leadership, we were able to move forward. Taken together, the standards the Administration has put in place for cars and light trucks span model years 2011 to 2025 and they represent the toughest fuel economy standards in history. Under this first-ever national program, average fuel efficiency for cars and trucks will nearly double, reaching an average performance equivalent of about 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025.

 

In 2011, the President also established the first-ever fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, covering model years 2014 through 2018. Over the lifetimes of the vehicles covered, trucks and buses will reduce oil consumption by a projected 530 million barrels and greenhouse gas pollution by approximately 270 million metric tons, saving vehicle owners and operators an estimated $50 billion in fuel costs.

 

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Today, the President directed the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation to set the next round of fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty trucks by March 2016. This next round of fuel efficiency standards will build on the historic work done to date, support American manufacturing innovation, and spur the development of new technologies. After years of idling on fuel efficiency, America’s truck fleet is on a straight road to lower emissions, fuel savings for drivers, and leading the world in advanced vehicles.

 

Check out our progress report, Improving the Fuel Efficiency of American Trucks, to learn more about today’s announcement and find out how the President is taking action on climate change by improving the efficiency of our vehicles.

 

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  • We the People Response: Reaffirming the White House’s Commitment to Net Neutrality

     

    Gene Sperling and Todd Park
    February 18, 2014
    02:06 PM EST

     

    Ed. note: Earlier today, the White House issued its response to a We the People petition on net neutrality. You can read it below, or see the response here.

     


     

    Thank you to everyone who has signed on to this petition in support of a free and open Internet. Since his days as a United States Senator, President Obama has embraced the principle of net neutrality. As the President recently noted, his campaign for the White House was empowered by an open Internet; it allowed millions of supporters to interact with the President and each other in unprecedented fashion. That experience helped give rise to the creation of this very platform – the We The People website– where Americans can express their opinions on any topic and receive a response from the White House. Rights of free speech, and the free flow of information, are central to our society and economy — and the principle of net neutrality gives every American an equal and meaningful opportunity to participate in both. Indeed, an open Internet is an engine for freedom around the world.

     

    Preserving an open Internet is vital not to just to the free flow of information, but also to promoting innovation and economic productivity. Because of its openness, the Internet has allowed entrepreneurs — with just a small amount of seed money or a modest grant — to take their innovative ideas from the garage or the dorm room to every corner of the Earth, building companies, creating jobs, improving vital services, and fostering even more innovation along the way.

     

    Absent net neutrality, the Internet could turn into a high-priced private toll road that would be inaccessible to the next generation of visionaries. The resulting decline in the development of advanced online apps and services would dampen demand for broadband and ultimately discourage investment in broadband infrastructure. An open Internet removes barriers to investment worldwide.

     

    A wide spectrum of stakeholders and policymakers recognize the importance of these principles. In the wake of last month’s court decision, it was encouraging to hear major broadband providers assert their commitment to an open Internet.

     

    It was also encouraging to see Federal Communications Commission Chairman Tom Wheeler, whom the President appointed to that post last year, reaffirm his commitment to a free and open Internet and pledge to use the authority granted by Congress to maintain a free and open Internet. The White House strongly supports the FCC and Chairman Wheeler in this effort.

     

    The petition asked that the President direct the FCC to reclassify Internet service providers as “common carriers” which, if upheld, would give the FCC a distinct set of regulatory tools to promote net neutrality. The FCC is an independent agency. Chairman Wheeler has publicly pledged to use the full authority granted by Congress to maintain a robust, free and open Internet — a principle that this White House vigorously supports.

 

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The Fifth Anniversary of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

 

Dive into the Presidency for President’s Day

 

Administration-Wide Response to the Drought

 

Weekly Address: Calling on Congress to Raise the Minimum Wage

 

Weekly Wrap Up: the French Visit, the President Raises the Wage for Federal Contractors, and More

 

First Lady Michelle Obama: “I Need You to See This”

 

 

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White House Week Ahead Schedule – February 19th to the 21st, 2014

 

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On Wednesday, the President will travel to Toluca, Mexico, to participate in the North American Leaders Summit. At the Summit, the President will discuss a wide range of issues including economic competitiveness and citizen security with Mexican President Peña Nieto and Canadian Prime Minister Harper.

 

On Thursday, the President will return from Toluca, Mexico and attend the Democratic Governors Association dinner.

 

On Friday, the President will meet with the Democratic governors in town for the annual National Governors Association Winter Meeting to discuss his Opportunity for All agenda and the Year of Action.

 

 

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Biden to visit Granite City, Ill. on Wednesday.

 

WASHINGTON–Vice President Joe Biden travels to Granite City, Illinois on Wednesday to visit America’s Central Port, a rail, river road shipping complex on the Illinois side of the Mississippi River.

 

From the White House: “The Vice President’s visit will mark the fifth anniversary of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and highlight the need for continued investment in infrastructure to create jobs and grow our economy. Secretary of Transportation Anthony Foxx and former Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood will also attend.”

 

 

!!!!!!barackphotooftheday

 

President Obama holds a meeting with African American civil rights leaders in the Roosevelt Room of the White House, February 18. Flanking the President are Attorney General Eric Holder and Senior Advisor Valerie Jarrett with Rev. Al Sharpton, president of National Action Network, also attending.

President Obama holds a meeting with African American civil rights leaders in the Roosevelt Room of the White House, February 18. Flanking the President are Attorney General Eric Holder and Senior Advisor Valerie Jarrett with Rev. Al Sharpton, president of National Action Network, also attending.

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President Obama Speaks At Safeway Distribution Center In Maryland

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President Barack Obama said he wants the environmental protection agency and the transportation department to implement a new round of fuel efficiency standards for medium and heavy-duty vehicles by March 2016.

President Barack Obama said he wants the environmental protection agency and the transportation department to implement a new round of fuel efficiency standards for medium and heavy-duty vehicles by March 2016.

Barack Obama

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TheObamaCrat™ Wake-Up Call For Tuesday The 18th Of February, 2014. The Economy. African American Leaders. Screening The Film Monuments Men.


 

By Jueseppi B.

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White House Schedule – February 18th, 2014

 

THE WHITE HOUSE
Office of the Press Secretary
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
February 18th, 2014

 

DAILY GUIDANCE AND SCHEDULE FOR
FRIDAY, JANUARY 18th, 2014

 

In the morning, the President will travel to Upper Marlboro, Maryland where he will deliver remarks on the economy at the Safeway Distribution Center. These remarks are open to pre-credentialed media.

 

In the afternoon, the President will meet with leaders from African American civil rights groups to discuss how his Administration can continue to partner with them on issues including criminal justice reform, income inequality and the Affordable Care Act. There will be a stills only pool spray at the top of the meeting.

 

Later in the afternoon, the President and Vice President will meet with Secretary of Defense Hagel in the Oval Office. This meeting is closed press.

 

In the evening, the President will host cast and crew members of the movie The Monuments Men at the White House. This screening is closed press.

 

Tuesday, February 18th, 2014 All Times ET

 

11:20 AM: THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks at the Safeway Distribution Center, Upper Marlboro, Maryland.

 

1:00 PM: Press Briefing by Press Secretary Jay Carney, The Brady Press Briefing Room.

 

2:50 PM: THE PRESIDENT meets with leaders from African American civil rights groups,Oval Office.

 

4:05 PM: THE PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT meet with Secretary of Defense Hagel, Oval Office.

 

5:45 PM: THE PRESIDENT hosts a screening of The Monuments Men at the White House, The Family Theater.

 

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White House Week Ahead Schedule – February 18th to the 21st, 2014

 

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On Tuesday, the President will deliver remarks at an event on the economy in the Washington, DC area.

 

On Wednesday, the President will travel to Toluca, Mexico, to participate in the North American Leaders Summit. At the Summit, the President will discuss a wide range of issues including economic competitiveness and citizen security with Mexican President Peña Nieto and Canadian Prime Minister Harper.

 

On Thursday, the President will return from Toluca, Mexico and attend the Democratic Governors Association dinner.

 

On Friday, the President will meet with the Democratic governors in town for the annual National Governors Association Winter Meeting to discuss his Opportunity for All agenda and the Year of Action.

 

 

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Reps. Kinzinger, Gutierrez; Sen. Kirk; Rahm at immigration forum today

 

WASHINGTON–With House Republicans not moving on any immigration bills, the Chicago Council on Global Affairs and the Illinois Business Immigration Coalition–both pro-reform organizations–hold a joint forum where three out of the four speakers are pushing for an overhaul and a fourth, Rep. Adam Kinzinger R-Ill. is uncommitted on the path forward.

 

My column on how the six Illinois GOP House members are not making immigration reform a priority is HERE.

 

The others on the program are Sen. Mark Kirk R-Ill. who voted for the Senate comprehensive immigration reform package last year; Rep. Luis Gutierrez D-Ill. leading reform efforts locally and nationally, and Mayor Rahm Emanuel.

 

The moderator is John Rowe, the retired chairman and CEO of Exelon Corporation, board member of The Chicago Council and co-chair of the Illinois Business Immigration Coalition–which is pressuring the Illinois Republicans to take action on immigration. In my column, Rowe–a leading Illinois Republican, influential on the GOP fundraising scene–was critical of the Illinois Six.

 

The discussion is at 10 a.m. Chicago time at the Standard Club on Plymouth Court. Watch the livestream HERE.

 

Kinzinger is the rare Illinois House Republican willing to discuss immigration before a large, public audience.

 

“Congressman Kinzinger is a part of the event tomorrow to help provide a House Republican’s perspective on the issue. I do not anticipate any announcements,” Kinzinger spokesman Zach Hunter told me.

 

“As members of the House of Representatives return home for a district work period this week, I think it is important to have a candid discussion with constituents about this important issue and the current politics surrounding it in Washington,” Kinzinger said in a statement.

 

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The White House Blog

 

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The Fifth Anniversary of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

 

Dive into the Presidency for President’s Day

 

Administration-Wide Response to the Drought

 

Weekly Address: Calling on Congress to Raise the Minimum Wage

 

Weekly Wrap Up: the French Visit, the President Raises the Wage for Federal Contractors, and More

 

First Lady Michelle Obama: “I Need You to See This”

 

 

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Next Up…

February 18, 2014 11:20 AM EST

President Obama Speaks on the Economy

Upper Marlboro, Maryland, Watch At White House LIVE!! Streaming.

 

 

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!!!!!!barackphotooftheday

 

President Obama boards Air Force One to leave Palm Springs International Airport on Monday, Feb. 17, en route to Washington

President Obama boards Air Force One to leave Palm Springs International Airport on Monday, Feb. 17, en route to Washington

President Obama boards Air Force One as he departs Palm Springs, California to return to Washington, February 17

President Obama boards Air Force One as he departs Palm Springs, California to return to Washington, February 17

 

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Biden to visit Granite City, Ill. on Wednesday.

 

WASHINGTON–Vice President Joe Biden travels to Granite City, Illinois on Wednesday to visit America’s Central Port, a rail, river road shipping complex on the Illinois side of the Mississippi River.

 

From the White House: “The Vice President’s visit will mark the fifth anniversary of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and highlight the need for continued investment in infrastructure to create jobs and grow our economy. Secretary of Transportation Anthony Foxx and former Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood will also attend.”

 

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Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #20: Colorism. Discrimination Based On Skin Color.

 

Black History Month 2014 Presents: Celebrating Black History Month; The Black History Moment Series, #1 thru #19….

 

In Case You Missed This Series….Black History Month 2014 Presents: Celebrating Black History Month; The Black History Moment Series.

 

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Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #20: Colorism. Discrimination Based On Skin Color.


 

By Jueseppi B.

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Throughout the month Of February, TheObamaCrat™ will post a daily series called The Black History Moment Series. Each day for 28 days of this historic month you will be given the food of Black History to satisfy your hunger for knowledge. 

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #20: Colorism. Discrimination Based On Skin Color.

 

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Colorism, a term coined by Alice Walker in 1982, is not a synonym of racism. “Race” depends on multiple factors (including ancestry); therefore, racial categorization does not solely rely on skin color. Skin color is only one mechanism used to assign individuals to a racial category, but race is the set of beliefs and assumptions assigned to that category. Racism is the dependence of social status on the social meaning attached to race; colorism is the dependence of social status on skin color alone. In order for a form of discrimination to be considered colorism, differential treatment must not result from racial categorization, but from the social values associated with skin color.

 

From HuffPost:

 

Colorism: Light-Skinned African-American Women Explain The Discrimination They Face

 

On a recent episode of “Oprah’s Lifeclass,” Iyanla Vanzant joined Oprah to discuss the issue of colorism, the prejudices people can face based on the lightness or darkness of their skin tone. While many understand colorism as the discrimination against darker-skinned African-Americans, two of Oprah’s lighter-skinned audience members surprise Iyanla with the colorism discrimination they face as well.

 

Though one of the women has seen first-hand how some of her darker-skinned family members are treated, she says that she, too, struggled with discrimination. “Being a light-skinned girl, you get called names,” she tells Iyanla. “You get called ‘lite-brite,’ you get called ‘high yellow,’ ‘redbone.’ This is a reality every day.”

 

Having longer hair or lighter skin, she continues, makes others in her community assume she thinks she is prettier than them — something she says simply isn’t true. “You’re alienated from your own people. You’re never black enough,” she says. “But we’re still black in America. None of us feel advantaged.”

 

Iyanla finds this prejudice against lighter-skinned black women very interesting. “Both the dark and the light are experiencing the same thing at different ends of the spectrum,” she says before turning to the woman who had shared her story. “You got insulted by being called ‘high yellow’ or ‘redbone,’ but somebody [darker] being called a ‘coon,’ a ‘jiggaboo,’ and a ‘monkey,’ –”

 

“We’re called that too,” another light-skinned audience member interrupts. “We’re called ‘coon’ and ‘jiggaboo’ and all those same things too. We’re still called that on top of ‘light bright’ and all those other things.”

 

“So the outside world that sees you as just a black person heaps the black stuff on you and then within the community, you get it,” Iyanla says. “Wow.”

 

Also in the video, one of the audience members explains the only way she believes real healing can begin, prompting Iyanla to give Oprah a “tweetable moment.”

 

Thank you HuffPost.

 

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Definition of Colorism

 

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Definition: Colorism is a practice of discrimination by which those with lighter skin are treated more favorably than those with darker skin. In the African-American community, this traditionally played out via the paper bag test. Those lighter than the standard paper lunch bag were allowed entry into fraternities, sororities and other realms of black upper class life, while dark-skinned blacks were excluded. The Spike Lee film “School Daze” is an exploration of colorism.

 

Examples:

Colorism mirrors white supremacy in that those with lighter skin are awarded privileges their dark-skinned counterparts aren’t–strictly based on skin color.

 

What Is Colorism?

 

“If you’re black, stay back;
if you’re brown, stick around;
if you’re yellow, you’re mellow;
if you’re white, you’re all right.”

 

In sum, colorism refers to discrimination based on skin color. Colorism disadvantages dark-skinned people, while privileging those with lighter skin. Research has linked colorism to smaller incomes, lower marriage rates, longer prison terms and fewer job prospects for darker-skinned people. What’s more, colorism has existed for centuries both in and outside of black America. That makes it a persistent form of discrimination that should be fought with the same urgency that racism is.

 

Thank you Ms. .

 

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Colorism can be found specifically in parts of Africa, Southeast Asia, East Asia, India, Latin America, and the United States. The abundance of colorism is a result of the global prevalence of “pigmentocracy,” a term recently adopted by social scientists to describe societies in which wealth and social status are determined by skin color. Throughout the numerous pigmentocracies across the world, the lightest-skinned peoples have the highest social status, followed by the brown-skinned, and finally the black-skinned who are at the bottom of the social hierarchy. This form of prejudice often results in reduced opportunities for those who are discriminated against on the basis of skin color.

 

Within the United States, colorism can be observed among all races. Although it occurs most notably among African Americans, it also occurs among Latinos, Asian Americans, Indian Americans, Native Americans, and even among European Americans.

 

European colonialism created a system of white supremacy and racist ideology, which led to a structure of domination that privileged whiteness over blackness. Biological differences in skin color were used as a justification for the enslavement and oppression of Africans, developing a social hierarchy that placed whites at the top and blacks at the bottom. The desire to rise out of this lower position ultimately caused internalized divisions among African Americans.

 

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Miscegenation, the mixing of different racial groups (commonly through the sexual exploitation of black female slaves by white male slave owners) resulted in a large number of mixed race individuals with both African and European ancestry. Terminology was also developed to distinguish various levels of African ancestry. The terms mulattoquadroon and octoroon were used to identify a black person with one-half, one-fourth and one-eighth of African ancestry, respectively. Slaves with lighter complexion were allowed to engage in less strenuous tasks, like domestic duties, while the darker slaves participated in hard labor, which was more than likely outdoors. A partial white heritage also gave light-skinned blacks more economic value and caused them to be viewed as smarter and superior to dark-skinned blacks, allowing more advantages in a white-dominated society, such as broader opportunities for education and the acquisition of land and property.

 

To prevent any confusion in regard to racial classification and to prohibit blacks with white ancestry from gaining the same legal status as full-blooded whites, the rule of hypo-descent, or the “one-drop rule” was mandated. According to the “one-drop rule,” even the smallest amount of African ancestry (or a drop of African blood) legally defined a person as black. After the abolition of slavery in 1865, however, colorism created an internalized structure of hierarchy and division within the black community, as lighter-skinned blacks began to set themselves apart by socializing, marrying and procreating with one another. Around the beginning of the twentieth century, separatist standards, such as the brown paper bag, comb, pencil, and flashlight tests began to be implemented. Also, exclusionary social clubs and societies were developed to create color divisions within black America that would shape socially constructed ideas about skin color.

 

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Examples of African American colorism

 

Brown paper bag test

The phrase “brown paper bag test” has traditionally been used by African Americans throughout the 20th and 21st century with reference to a ritual once practiced by certain African-American sororities and fraternities who would not let anyone into the group whose skin tone was darker than a paper bag. Also known as a paper bag party, these lighter-skinned social circles reflected an idea of exclusion and exclusiveness. The notion of the “paper bag” has carried a complex and obscure meaning in black communities for many decades. The reason for the usage of the “paper bag” is because the color of the paper bag is considered to be the “center” marker of blackness that distinguishes “light skin” from “dark skin” on a continuum stretching infinitely from black to white. Also, the brown paper bag is believed to act as a benchmark for certain levels of acceptance and inclusion.

 

Spike Lee‘s film School Daze satirized this practice at historically black colleges and universities. Along with the “paper bag test,” guidelines for acceptance among the lighter ranks included the “comb test” and “pencil test,” which tested the coarseness of one’s hair, and the “flashlight test,” which tested a person’s profile to make sure their features measured up or were close enough to those of the Caucasian race.

 

School Daze 1988

 

 

 

The bleaching syndrome

A phenomenon known as “The bleaching syndrome,” which refers to the process of attempting to lighten one’s skin, has made a significant impact on the commercial industry and the lives of African Americans since the beginning of the 21st century. The roots of the skin bleaching phenomenon stem from African Americans internalizing dominant cultural ideas, without the possibility of full assimilation into American society. A psychological conflict is thus created, causing African Americans to develop a disdain for dark skin as it counters dominant cultural ideals. In an attempt to simultaneously reduce this conflict and enable assimilation, many African Americans developed the bleaching syndrome. Since the degree of assimilation correlates with skin color based on dominant cultural standards, light skin is crucial relative to the degree of assimilation in the United States. Coincidentally, lighter skin is thought to be an ideal point of reference for attractiveness and marital partner selection among African Americans. The practice of applying light skin as a point of reference, however, is considered to be culturally self-destructive. Ultimately, the bleaching syndrome is a manifestation of the conflicting circumstances regarding the assimilation of African Americans into dominant cultural values.

 

Skin Color Paradox

The Skin Color Paradox refers to the fact that no matter how differently African Americans are treated based on their skin color, their political and cultural attitudes about “blackness” as a form of identity and their feelings of relatedness and solidarity with other blacks tend to remain consistent. Although light-skinned African Americans receive many socioeconomic advantages over dark-skinned African Americans, who have much more punitive relationships with the criminal justice system and greatly diminished prestige, and although African Americans are aware of this disparity in treatment and status, both light-skinned and dark-skinned African Americans have similar political attitudes towards discrimination and race solidarity.

 

Political scientists would suggest that skin color is a characteristic perhaps as equally important as religion, income, and education, which is why this paradox is so surprising, but studies show that skin color has no real bearing on actual political preference. Affirmative action is another example of the paradox between colorism on the one hand and political preference on the other. Studies show that most African Americans that benefit from Affirmative action come from families that are better educated and more well off, and historically this means that the lighter-skinned portion of the black race is receiving the majority of the aid, making it appear as if the race as a whole is being benefited. Yet beneficiaries of this special treatment tend to hold on to their political identification with “blackness.” 

 

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Stereotypes

The light to dark hierarchy within the African American race is one that has existed since the time of slavery, but its problems and consequences are still very evident and lead to various stereotypes. Darker skinned blacks are more likely to have negative relationships with the police, less likely to have higher education or income levels, and less likely to hold public office. Darker skinned people are also considered less intelligent, less desirable in women mostly, and are overall seen as inferior to lighter-skinned people.

 

Studies have shown that when measuring education and family income, there is a positive sloping curve as the skin of families gets lighter. This does not prove that darker skinned people are discriminated against, but it provides insight as to why these statistics are recurring. Lighter skinned people tend to have higher social standing, more positive social networks, and more opportunities to succeed than those of a darker persuasion. Scientists believe this advantage is due to not only to their ancestors’ benefits, but also to skin color. In criminal sentencing, medium to dark-skinned African Americans are likely to receive sentences 2.6 years longer than those of whites or light-skinned African Americans, and when a white victim is involved, those with more “black” features are likely to receive a much more severe punishment, reinforcing the idea that those of lighter complexion are of more “value.”

 

The perception of beauty can be influenced by racial stereotypes about skin color; the African American journalist Jill Nelson wrote that “to be both prettiest and black was impossible” and elaborated:

 

As a girl and young woman, hair, body, and color were society’s trinity in determining female beauty and identity, the cultural and value-laden gang of three that formed the boundaries and determined the extent of women’s visibility, influence, and importance. For the most part, they still are. We learn as girls that in ways both subtle and obvious, personal and political, our value as females is largely determined by how we look. As we enter womanhood, the pervasive power of this trinity is demonstrated again and again in how we are treated by the men we meet, the men we work for, the men who wield power, how we treat each other and, most of all, ourselves. For black women, the domination of physical aspects of beauty in women’s definition and value render us invisible, partially erased, or obsessed, sometimes for a lifetime, since most of us lack the major talismans of Western beauty. Black women find themselves involved in a lifelong effort to self-define in a culture that provides them no positive reflection.

 

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Media and public perception

The media is responsible for influencing beliefs regarding ideas of beauty in the African American community. Mass media productions often perpetuate discrimination based on skin color. African Americans possessing lighter skin complexion and “European features,” such as lighter eyes, and smaller noses and lips have more opportunities in the media industry.[38] For example, film producers hire lighter-skinned African Americans more often, television producers choose lighter skinned cast members, and magazine editors choose African American models that resemble European features. As a result, the media industry sends the messages that African Americans with Eurocentric features are more likely to be accepted, diminishing the status of darker-skinned African Americans.

 

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In regards to the magazine industry, African American women are rarely showcased in the most popular magazines. Therefore, African American girls have difficultly identifying with the models showcased in these magazines, because they do not represent the type of women that they come into contact with in their own communities. There are also biases towards Caucasians in the advertisements used in these magazines. Recent studies have indicated that the number of racially biased advertisements in magazines have increased over the years. A content analysis conducted by Scott and Neptune (1997) shows that less than one percent of advertisements in major magazines featured African American models. When African Americans did appear in advertisements they were mainly portrayed as athletes, entertainers or unskilled laborers. In addition, seventy percent of the advertisements that features animal print included African American women. Animal print reinforces the stereotypes that African Americans are animalistic in nature, sexually active, less educated, have lower income, and extremely concerned with personal appearances.

 

Concerning African American males in the media, darker skinned men are more likely to be portrayed as violent or more threatening, influencing the public perception of African American men. Since dark-skinned males are more likely to be linked to crime and misconduct, many people develop preconceived notions about the characteristics of black men. Through extreme gangster rap music, reality crime shows, and newscasts, crime has been defined by contemporary media and given a black face despite statistics that paint a different picture. For example, cocaine use has been found to be higher among whites, but African Americans are the dominant figures seen on crime shows such as Cops.

 

The negative public perception of darker-skinned African American places them at a disadvantage in other aspects of society, such as the workforce. Skin color plays a significant role in the acceptance of African Americans in the workforce and can even hold more importance than an individual’s credentials and ability. For example, hiring managers generally have a different perception of a light-skinned African American female applicant, compared to a dark-skinned female applicant. Light-skinned African American women were found to have higher salaries than dark-skinned women, and light-skinned women were more satisfied with their jobs in regards to pay and advancement opportunities. Researchers have also termed dark-skinned women as being in a “triple-jeopardy” situation because all three aspects of their identity—their gender, race and skin-tone—can have negative and harmful implications on occupational opportunities and overall feelings of competency.

 

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Despite exclusion and bias, the media has made an attempt to correct some of the negative images of African Americans. Examples of shows in which African Americans have been positively portrayed in the past include The Cosby ShowThe Fresh Prince of Bel-Air and A Different World. In addition, new television specials such as Black Girl’s Rock and My Black is Beautiful highlight African American men and women for their contributions to society. Overall, these media changes have helped to provide a unique and more accurate representation of black culture in the twenty-first century. Television networks such as Centric and TV One and magazines such as Essence and Ebony play a major role in portraying African Americans in a more positive light than they have been portrayed in the past.

 

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Skin bleaching

Skin bleaching has long since been one of the oldest forms of achieving fair skin and has become a multibillion dollar industry. This obsession with whiteness has not faded over time; a survey concluded that three quarters of Malaysian men thought their partners would be more attractive if they had lighter skin complexions. Women in countries such as South Korea, India, China, Saudi Arabia, and Uganda, use toxic skin bleaching creams to achieve a lighter skin complexion. Especially with the increase in globalization, many post colonial and Third World nations have seen a rise in the purchasing of skin lightening creams to achieve a Eurocentric appearance. Skin bleachers, which are marketed as ‘beauty products’ go by many names: skin lighteners, skin whiteners, skin-toning creams, skin fading gels, etc., however, the promises are all the same: that the product will help to reduce melanin in its consumers.

 

In countries throughout Asia, these skin bleachers can be purchased in malls, drug stores, and even on the internet. These markets thrive on the vulnerabilities, fears, and taps into the cultural beliefs of countries that believe light-skinned is more valued. In the India, the highest selling brand of skin lightening bleach cream, Fair & Lovely, promotes that the product produces dignity and that to be fair skinned is aspirational. There are many reasons for the increasing global phenomenon of skin lighteners, from one’s skin being too dark, to attracting romantic prospects, to be popular and fashionable, or to ensure one’s skin is brown and not black. However, these skin bleaching products usually contain three harmful ingredients: mercury, hydroquinone, and/or corticosteroids. All of these chemicals can be extremely dangerous and fatal, and most of the products are made outside the U.S. and Europe and are therefore less subject to strict regulation.

 

aa shades of beauty sistas

 

Tanning

In the 20th century there has been a shift towards a preference for darker, tanned skin in white communities. The beginning of this change has been attributed to Frenchwoman Coco Chanel making tanned skin seem fashionable, luxurious and healthy in Paris in the 1920s. Tanned skin has become associated with the increased leisure time and sportiness of wealth and social status while pale skin is associated with indoor office work. Several studies have found tanned skin is regarded as both more attractive and healthier than pale skin, and there is a direct correlation between the degree of tanning and perceived attractiveness especially in young woman. White celebrities such as Heidi KlumVictoria Beckham and Katy Perry have used artificial tanning to darken their natural skin tone and self-tanning has become the fastest growing sector in the cosmetics market worldwide. Artificial tanning methods can cause serious health issues, with a 75% increase in the risk of melanoma associated with tanning beds and the potential of inhaling or ingesting potentially harmful chemicals.

 

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Must Reads:

Why Tika Sumpter Loves Her Dark Skin

 

How You May Be Playing Into Colorism Without Realizing It

 

Study Claims People Remember Educated Black Men As Lighter-Skinned

 

The Secret Shame Of Colorism

 

Not Caste in Color: Dispelling Myths in Our Classrooms

 

“You’re Pretty for a Dark-Skinned Girl”: The Continuing Significance of Skin Tone in “the Black Community”

 

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Black History Month 2014 Presents: Celebrating Black History Month; The Black History Moment Series, #1 thru #19….

 

In Case You Missed This Series….Black History Month 2014 Presents: Celebrating Black History Month; The Black History Moment Series.

 

20020130 BLACK HISTORY

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