Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #10: Black Women Who Were Lynched In America.


 

By Jueseppi B.

Until "we" own it, and teach it, and accept responsibility for stealing Africans from their homeland to enslave them in America, there will always be a need for Black History Month.

Until “we” own it, and teach it, and accept responsibility for stealing Africans from their homeland to enslave them in America, there will always be a need for Black History Month.

 

Throughout the month Of February, TheObamaCrat™ will post a daily series called The Black History Moment Series. Each day for 28 days of this historic month you will be given the food of Black History to satisfy your hunger for knowledge. 

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #10: Black Women Who Were Lynched In America.

 

Lynching in the United States

 

Unidentified Man and Two Women Lynched.

Unidentified Man and Two Women Lynched.

 

Lynching, the practice of killing people by extrajudicial mob action, occurred in the United States chiefly from the late 18th century through the 1960s. Lynchings took place most frequently against black men in theSouthern United States from 1890 to the 1920s, with a peak in the annual toll in 1892. Lynchings were also very common in the Old West, although victims were different.

 

Lynching in the South is associated with the whites re-imposition of white supremacy after the Civil War. The granting of U.S. Constitutional rights to freedmen in the Reconstruction era (1865–77) aroused anxieties among white Southerners, who were not ready to concede social status to African Americans, blaming the freedmen for their own wartime hardship, economic loss, and forfeiture of social and political privilege. During Reconstruction, Black Americans, and Whites active in the pursuit of integration rights, were sometimes lynched in the South.

 

In addition, blacks were intimidated and attacked to prevent their voting. Lynchings reached a peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, following the withdrawal of federal troops, and the Democrats taking back control of state legislatures: they passed new constitutions and electoral rules to disfranchise most blacks and many poor whites. They enacted a series of segregation and Jim Crow laws to reestablish White supremacy. During the Civil Rights Movement, violence erupted again; notable lynchings of integration rights workers during the 1960s in Mississippi resulted in the galvanizing of national public support for federal civil rights legislation.

 

The Tuskegee Institute has recorded 3,446 blacks and 1,297 whites being lynched between 1882 and 1968, with the peak annually in the late 19th century.

African Americans mounted resistance to lynchings in numerous ways. Intellectuals and journalists encouraged public education, actively protesting and lobbying against lynch mob violence and government complicity in that violence. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), as well as numerous other organizations, organized support from white and black Americans alike and conducted a national campaign to get a federal anti-lynching law passed.

 

African-American women’s clubs raised funds to support the work of public campaigns, including anti-lynching plays. Their petition drives, letter campaigns, meetings and demonstrations helped to highlight the issues and combat lynching. In the Great Migration, extending in two waves from 1910 to 1970, 6.5 million African Americans left the South, primarily for destinations in northern and mid-western cities, bot to gain better jobs and education, and to escape the high rate of violence.

 

From 1882 to 1968, “…nearly 200 anti-lynching bills were introduced in Congress, and three passed the House. Seven presidents between 1890 and 1952 petitioned Congress to pass a federal law.” In 1920 the Republican Party promised at its national convention to support passage of such a law. In 1921 Leonidas C. Dyer from Saint Louis sponsored an anti-lynching bill; it was passed in January 1922 in the United States House of Representatives, but a Senate filibuster by the Southern white Democratic block defeated it in December 1922. With the NAACP, Representative Dyer spoke across the country in support of his bill in 1923 and tried to gain passage that year and the next, but was defeated by the Southern Democratic block.

 

Jennie Steers
On July 25, 1903 a mob lynched Jennie Steers on the Beard Plantation in Louisiana for supposedly giving a white teenager, 16 year-old Elizabeth Dolan, a glass of poisoned lemonade. Before they killed her, the mob tried to force her to confess but she refused and was hanged. (100 Years at Lynching. Ralph Ginzburg)

 

Laura Nelson
Laura Nelson was lynched on May 23, 1911 In Okemah, Okluskee, Oklahoma. Her fifteen year old son was also lynched at the same time but I could not find a photo of her son. The photograph of Nelson was drawn from a postcard. Authorities accused her of killing a deputy sheriff who supposedly stumbled on some stolen goods in her house. Why they lynched her child is a mystery. The mob raped and dragged Nelson six miles to the Canadian River and hanged her from a bridge.(NAACP: One Hundred Years of Lynching in the US 1889-1918 )

 

Ann Barksdale or Ann Bostwick
The lynchers maintained that Ann Barksdale or Ann Bostwlck killed her female employer in Pinehurst, Georgia on June 24, 1912. Nobody knows if or why Barksdale or Bostick killed her employer because there was no trial and no one thought to take a statement from this Black woman who authorities claimed had ”violent fits of insanity” and should have been placed in a hospital. Nobody was arrested and the crowd was In a festive mood. Placed in a car with a rope around her neck, and the other end tied to a tree limb, the lynchers drove at high speed and she was strangled to death. For good measure the mob shot her eyes out and shot enough bullets Into her body that she was “cut in two.”

 

Marie Scott
March 31, 1914, a white mob of at least a dozen males, yanked seventeen year-old Marie Scott from jail, threw a rope over her head as she screamed and hanged her from a telephone pole in Wagoner County, Oklahoma. What happened? Two drunken white men barged Into her house as she was dressing. They locked themselves in her room and criminally “assaulted” her. Her brother apparently heard her screams for help, kicked down the door, killed one assailant and fled. Some accounts state that the assailant was stabbed. Frustrated by their inability to lynch Marie Scott’s brother the mob lynched Marie Scott. (Crisis 1914 and 100 Years of Lynching)

 

Mary Turner 1918 Eight Months Pregnant
Mobs lynched Mary Turner on May 17, 1918 in Lowndes County. Georgia because she vowed to have those responsible for killing her husband arrested. Her husband was arrested in connection with the shooting and killing Hampton Smith, a white farmer for whom the couple had worked, and wounding his wife. Sidney Johnson. a Black, apparently killed Smith because he was tired of the farmer’s abuse. Unable to find Johnson. the killers lynched eight other Blacks Including Hayes Turner and his wife Mary. The mob hanged Mary by her feet, poured gasoline and oil on her and set fire to her body. One white man sliced her open and Mrs. Turner’s baby tumbled to the ground with a “little cry” and the mob stomped the baby to death and sprayed bullets into Mary Turner. (NAACP: Thirty Years of Lynching in the U.S. 1889-1918  )

 

Maggie Howze and Alma Howze -Both Pregnant
Accused of the murder of Dr. E.L. Johnston in December 1918. Whites lynched Andrew Clark, age 15, Major Clark, age 20, Maggie Howze, age 20, and Alma Howze, age 16 from a bridge near Shutaba, a town in Mississippi. The local press described Johnston as being a wealthy dentist, but he did not have an established business in the true sense of the word. He sought patients by riding his buggy throughout the community offering his services to the public at large in Alabama.

 

Unable to make money “peddling” dentistry, the dentist returned to Mississippi to work on his father’s land near Shabuta. During his travels he had developed an intimate relationship with Maggie Howze. a Black woman who he had asked to move and lived with him. He also asked that she bring her sister Alma Howze along. While using the Black young women as sexual objects Johnson impregnated both of them though he was married and had a child. Three Black laborers worked on Johnston’s plantation, two of whom were brothers, Major and Andrew Clark. Major tried to court Maggie, but Johnson was violently opposed to her trying to create a world of her own that did not include him. To block a threat to his sexual fiefdom, Johnston threaten Clark’s life. Shortly after Johnston turned up dead and the finger was pointed at Major Clark and the Howze sisters. The whites picked up Major, his brother, Maggie and her sister and threw them in jail. To extract a confession from Major Clark, the authorities placed his testicles between the “jaws of a vise” and slowly closed it until Clark admitted that he killed Johnston.

 

White community members took the four Blacks out of jail, placed them in an automobile, turned the head lights out and headed to the lynching site. Eighteen other cars, carrying members of the mob, followed close behind. Someone shut the power plant down and the town fell into darkness. Ropes were placed around the necks of the four Blacks and the other ends tied to the girder of the bridge. Maggie Howze cried, “I ain’t guilty of killing the doctor and you oughtn’t to kill me.” Someone took a monkey wrench and “struck her In the mouth with It, knocking her teeth out. She was also hit across the head with the same instrument, cutting a long gash In which the side of a person’s hand could be placed.” While the three other Blacks were killed instantly, Maggie Howze, four months pregnant, managed to grab the side of the bridge to break her fall. She did this twice before she died and the mob joked about how difficult it was to kill that “big Jersey woman.” No one stepped forward to claim the bodies. No one held funeral services for the victims. The Black community demanded that the whites cut them down and bury them because they ‘lynched them.” The whites placed them in unmarked graves.

 

Alma Howze was on the verge of giving birth when the whites killed her. One witness claimed that at her “burial on the second day following, the movements of her unborn child could be detected.” Keep in mind, Johnston’s parents felt that the Blacks had nothing to do with their son’s death and that some irate white man killed him, knowing that the blame would fall on the Black’s shoulders. The indefatigable Walter White, NAACP secretary, visited the scene of the execution and crafted the report. He pressed Governor Bilbo of Mississippi to look into the lynching and Bilbo told the NAACP to go to hell. (NAACP: Thirty Years of Lynching in the U.S.. 1889-1918 ) (Papers of the NAACP)

 

Holbert Burnt at the Stake
Luther Holbert, a Black, supposedly killed James Eastland, a wealthy planter and John Carr, a negro, who lived near Doddsville Mississippi. After a hundred mile chase over four days, the mob of more than 1,000 persons caught Luther and his wife and tied them both to trees. They were forced to hold out their hands while one finger at a time was chopped off and their ears were cut off. Pieces of raw quivering flesh was pulled out of their arms, legs and body with a bore screw and kept for souvenirs. Holbert was beaten and his skull fractured. An eye was knocked out with a stick and hung from the socket. (100 Years of Lynching by Ralph Ginzburg)

 

 

WHO ARE OUR REAL HEROES?
American mobs lynched some 5.000 Blacks since 1859, scores of whom were women, several of them pregnant. Rarely did the killers spend time in jail because the white mobs and the government officials who protected them believed justice meant (just us) white folks. Lynching denied Blacks the right to a trial or the right to due process. No need for a lawyer and a jury of your peers: the white community decided what happened and what ought to be done. After the whites accused Laura Nelson of killing a white deputy In Oklahoma, they raped this Black woman, tied her to a bridge trestle and for good measure.

 

They lynched her son from a telephone pole. Had the white community reacted in horror after viewing the dangling corpses of Laura Nelson and her son? No, they came by the hundreds, making their way by cars, horse driven wagons, and by foot to view the lynching. Dressed in their Sunday best, holding their children’s hands and hugging their babies the white on-lookers looked forward to witnessing the spectacle of a modern day crucifixion. They snapped pictures of Laura Nelson, placed them on postcards and mailed them to their friends boasting about the execution. They chopped of f the fingers, sliced off the ears of Ms. Holbert, placed the parts In jars of alcohol and displayed them in their windows.

 

White America today know little or nothing about lynching because it contradicts every value America purports to stand for. Blacks, too, know far too little about the lynchings because the subject is rarely taught in school. Had they known more about these lynchings, I am almost certain that Blacks would have taken anyone to task, including gangster rappers, for calling themselves niggers or calling Black women “hoes” and “bitches.” How could anybody in their right mind call these Black women who were sexually abused, mutilated, tortured and mocked the same degrading Please do not throw this away. Give it to a friend or a names that the psychopathic lynchers called them? relative. Peace.

 

What Black woman in her right state of mind would snap her fingers or tap her feet toihe beat of a song that contained the same degrading remarks that the whites uttered when they raped and lynched them The lynchers and the thousands of gleeful spectators called these Black women niggers when they captured them, niggers when they placed the rope around their necks and niggers when their necks snapped. Whites viewed Black women as hated black things, for, how else can one explain the treatment of Mary Turner?

 

The lynch mob ignored her cries for mercy, ripped off her clothes, tied her ankles together, turned her upside down, doused her naked body with gas and oil, set her naked body on fire, ripped her baby out of her, stomped the child to death and laughed about it. Blacks purchased Winchesters to protect themselves, staged demonstrations, created anti-lynching organizations, pushed for anti-lynching legislation and published articles and books attacking the extralegal violence. Many pocked up. left the community never to return again. Others went through bouts of sadness, despair, and grief. Some broke down, a few went insane. Others probably fell on their knees, put their hands together, closed their eyes and begged Jesus for help.

 

Jesus help us. Do not forsake us. But Jesus. the same white man the lyncher’s ancestors taught us to love, never flew out of the bush in a flame of fire armed with frogs and files and locusts to save Mary Turner. No thunder, no rain, no hail and no fire blocked the lynchers from hanging Laura Nelson. He did not see the “affliction” of the Holberts; he did not hear the screams of Marie Scott or the cry of Jennifer Steers.

 

So who are our real heroes?. Little Kim Is not a hero. Oprah is not a hero.. Whoople Goldberg is not a hero. Michael Jordan is not a hero. Dennis Rodman Is not a hero. They are entertainers, sport figures. creations of the media, media icons and they are about making huge sums of money and we wish these enterprising stars well. . Mary Turner, Laura Nelson, Marie Scott and Jennie Steers are your true historical heroes. Niggers they were not. Bitches they were not. Hoes they were not. They will not go down in history for plastering their bodies with tattoos, inventing exotic diets, endorsing Gator Ade, embracing studIo gangsterism, They were strong beautiful Black women who suffered excruciating pain, died horrible deaths. Their legacy of -strength lives on. These are my heroes. Make them yours as well.

 
Below are women who were lynched in addition to the initial findings of Dr. Daniel Meaders. They can be found in the pages of the book 100 Years of Lynching by Ralph Ginzburg.

 

Mae Murray Dorsey and Dorothy Malcolm
On July 25, 1946, four young African Americans—George & Mae Murray Dorsey and Roger & Dorothy Malcom—were shot hundreds of times by 12 to 15 unmasked white men in broad daylight at the Moore’s Ford bridge spanning the Apalachee River, 60 miles east of Atlanta, Georgia. These killings, for which no one was ever prosecuted, enraged President Harry Truman and led to historic changes, but were quickly forgotten in Oconee and Walton Counties where they occurred. No one was ever brought to justice for the crime.

 

Ballie Crutchfield
Around midnight on March 15, 1901 Ballie Crutchfield was taken from her home in Rome to a bridge over Round Lick Creek by a mob. There her hands were tied behind her, and she was shot through the head and then thrown in the creek. Her body was recovered the next day and an inquest found that she met her death at the hands of persons unknown (euphemism for lynching).

 

After Walter Sampson lost a pocketbook containing $120, it was found by a little boy. As he went to return it to its owner, William Crutchfield, Ballie’s brother, met the boy. Apparently, the boy gave him the pocketbook after being convinced it had no value. Sampson had Crutchfield arrested and taken to the house of one Squire Bains.

 

A mob came to take Crutchfield for execution. On the way he broke lose and escaped in the dark. The mob was so blind with rage they lay blame on Ballie as a co-conspirator in her brother’s alleged crime and proceeded to enact upon their beliefs culminating in the aforementioned orgy of inhumanity.

 

Belle Hathaway
At 9 o’clock the night of January 23, 1912 100 men congregated in front of the Hamilton, Georgia courthouse. They then broke into the Harris County Jail. After overpowering Jailor E.M. Robinson they took three men and a woman one mile from town.

 

Belle Hathaway, John Moore, Eugene Hamming, and “Dusty” Cruthfield were in jail after being charged with the shooting death a farmer named Norman Hadley.

 

Writhing bodies silhouetted against the sky as revolvers and rifles blazed forth a cacophony of 300 shots at the victims before the mob dispersed.

 

Sullivan Couple Hung as Deputy Sheriff and Posse Watch
Fred Sullivan and his wife were hanged after being accused of burning a barn on a plantation near Byhalia, Mississippi November 25, 1914. The deputy sheriff and his posse were forced to watch the proceedings.

 

Cordella Stevenson Raped and Lynched
Wednesday, December 8, 1915 Cordella Stevenson was hung from the limb of a tree without any clothing about fifty yards north of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad outside Columbus, Mississippi. The gruesomely horrific scene was witnessed by thousands and thousands of passengers who traveled in and out of the city the next morning.

 

She was hung there by a bloodthirsty mob who had taken her from slumber, husband and home to the spot where she was raped and lynched. All this was done after she had been brought to the police station for questioning in connection with the arson of Gabe Frank’s barn. Her son had been suspected of the fire. The police released her after she convinced them her son had left home several months prior and she did not know his whereabouts.

 

After going to bed early, a knock was heard at the door. Her husband, Arch Stevenson went to answer, but the door was broken down first and his wife was seized. He was threatened with rifle barrels to his head should he move.

 

The body was left hanging until Friday morning. An inquest returned a verdict of “death at the hands of persons unknown.”

 

5 Hanged on One Oak Tree
Three men and two women were taken from the jail in Newberry, Florida on August 19, 1916 and hanged by a mob. Another man was shot by deputy sheriffs near Jonesville, Florida. All this was the result of the killing the day prior of Constable S.G. Wynne and the shooting of Dr. L.G. Harris by Boisey Long. Those who were lynched had been accused of aiding Long in his escape.

 

Mary Conley
After Sam Conley had been reprimanded by E.M. Melvin near Arlington, Georgia, his mother Mary intervened to express her resentment. After Melvin slapped and grappled with her, Sam Conley struck Melvin on the head with an iron scale weight, resulting in his death shortly afterward.

 

Although Sam escaped, his mother was captured and jailed. She was taken from the jail at Leary and her body was riddled with bullets. Her remains were found along the roadside by parties entering into Arlington the next morning.

 

Bertha Lowman
Demon Lowman, Bertha Lowman, and their cousin Clarence Lowman were in the Aiken, South Carolina jail when it was raided by a mob early on October 8, 1926. The three had been in jail for a year and a half while they were tried for the murder of Sheriff and Klansman Henry H.H. Howard. Howard was shot in the back while raiding the house of Sam Lowman, father to Bertha and Demon. Klansmen filed by Howard’s body two-by-two when it laid in state. A year after his funeral a cross was burned in the cemetery at his grave.

 

Although the Lowman’s were tried and sentenced to death, a State Supreme Court reversed the findings and ordered a new trial. Demon had just been found not guilty when the raid on the jail occurred. Taken to a pine thicket just beyond the city limits their bodies were riddled with bullets.

 

The events which resulted in this lynching are surreal to say the least. Samuel Lowman was away from home at a mill having meal ground on April 25, 1925. Sheriff Howard and three deputies appeared at the Lowman Cabin three miles from Aiken. Annie Lowman, Samuel’s wife and their daughter Bertha were out back of the house working. Their family had never been in any kind of trouble. They did not know the sheriff and he did not know them. Furthermore, they were not wearing any uniform or regalia depicting them as law enforcers. Hence the alarming state of mind they had when four white men entered their yard unannounced, even if it was on a routine whiskey check. It was even more distressing because a group of white men had come to the house a few weeks earlier and whipped Demon for no reason at all. After speaking softly to each other the women decided to go in the house.

 

When the men saw the women move towards the house they drew their revolvers and rushed forward. Sheriff Howard reached the back step at the same time as Bertha. He struck her in the mouth with his pistol butt. Mrs. Lowman picked up an axe and rushed to her daughter’s aid. A deputy emptied his revolver into the old woman killing her.

 

Demon and Clarence were working in a nearby field when they heard Bertha’s scream. Demon retrieved a pistol from a shed while Clarence armed himself with a shotgun. The deputies shot at Demon, who returned fire. Clarence’s actions are not clear. When it was all over a few seconds later the Sheriff was dead. Bertha had received two gunshots to the chest just above her heart. Clarence and Demon were wounded also. In total five members of the Lowman family were in put jail.

 

Samuel Lowman returned to find in his absence he had become a widower with four of his children in jail along with his nephew. In three days he would be charged with harboring illegal liquor when a quarter of a bottle of the substance is found in his backyard. For that the elderly farmer was sentenced to two years on the chain gang.

 

18 year old Bertha, 22 year old Demon and 15 year old Clarence were tried for the Sheriff’s murder and swiftly found guilty. The men were sentenced to death with Bertha given a life sentence.

 

Demon’s acquittal made it appear that Clarence and Bertha would been freed as well. The day they were murdered they were taken from the jail, driven to a tourist a few miles from town and set loose. As they ran they were shot down.

 

Mr. Lowman contended one of the deputies who coveted the Sheriff’s job was his real killer. The same man later led the mob which slew Lowman’s children and nephew. Apparently, he knew they could identify him as the culprit.

 

This piece was originally posted by Ms. Henrietta Vinton Davis’s Weblog. Please visit her informative, factual & true web site for more Black History.

 

The lynching of Laura Nelson

The lynching of Laura Nelson

 

Black Women who were Lynched in America

 

(Note: this post  is just a partial list of Black Women who were lynched in America.  More research has revealed there are over 150 documented cases of African American women lynched in America.  Four of them were known to have been pregnant. You can see the full list at the post Recorded Cases of Black Female Lynching Victims 1886-1957: More on Black Women Who Were Lynched.)

 

 

Billie Holiday-Strange fruit- HD

 

Strange Fruit

Southern trees bear strange fruit
Blood on the leaves and blood at the root
Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze
Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees

 

Pastoral scene of the gallant south
The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth
Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh
Then the sudden smell of burning flesh

 

Here is fruit for the crows to pluck
For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck
For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop
Here is a strange and bitter crop

 

 

 

 

More Black Women who were Lynched

 

 

Black History Month 2014 Presents: Celebrating Black History Month; The Black History Moment Series.

 

BLACK HISTORY: A slave auction was held near this location in Zanzibar for many years. This is an image of a sculpture, Memory for the Slaves by Clara Sörnäs, concrete, 1998.

BLACK HISTORY: A slave auction was held near this location in Zanzibar for many years. This is an image of a sculpture, Memory for the Slaves by Clara Sörnäs, concrete, 1998.

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #1. Slavery.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #2. The Middle Passage.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #3. Post Racial AmeriKKKa.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #4 The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #5 Rosewood, Florida. The Rosewood Massacre.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #6: The Destruction of The Black Family.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #7: Black Indians In The United States.

 

 

Happy 101st Birthday Ms. Rosa Louise McCauley Parks.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #8: Charles H. Wright Museum Of African American History.

 

Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #9: The History Of Slavery In America.

 

 

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Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #9: The History Of Slavery In America.


 

By Jueseppi B.

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Throughout the month Of February, TheObamaCrat™ will post a daily series called The Black History Moment Series. Each day for 28 days of this historic month you will be given the food of Black History to satisfy your hunger for knowledge. 

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #9: The History Of Slavery In America.

 

1373574061_dG8LX9L1SByGBVYiVLFF_slaves-persons-not-property

 

Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted as a legal institution until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. It continues illegally to this day.

 

The History of Slavery In America

 

 

 

Before the widespread establishment of chattel slavery, much labor was organized under a system of bonded labor known as indentured servitude. This typically lasted for several years for white and black alike, and it was a means of using labor to pay the costs of transporting people to the colonies.

 

By the 18th century, court rulings established the racial basis of the American incarnation of slavery to apply chiefly to Black Africans and people of African descent, and occasionally to Native Americans.

 

A 1705 Virginia law stated slavery would apply to those peoples from nations that were not Christian. In part because of the success of tobacco as a cash crop in the Southern colonies, its labor-intensive character caused planters to import more slaves for labor by the end of the 17th century than did the northern colonies.

 

The South had a significantly higher number and proportion of slaves in the population. Religious differences contributed to this geographic disparity as well.

 

From 1654 until 1865, slavery for life was legal within the boundaries of much of the present United States. Most slaves were black and were held by whites, although some Native Americans and free blacks also held slaves; there were a small number of white slaves as well. The majority of slave holding was in the southern United States where most slaves were engaged in an efficient machine-like gang system of agriculture.

 

According to the 1860 U.S. census, nearly four million slaves were held in a total population of just over 12 million in the 15 states in which slavery was legal. Of all 8,289,782 free persons in the 15 slave states, 393,967 people (4.8%) held slaves, with the average number of slaves held by any single owner being 10.

 

The majority of slaves were held by planters, defined by historians as those who held 20 or more slaves.Ninety-five percent of black people lived in the South, comprising one-third of the population there, as opposed to 2% of the population of the North. The wealth of the United States in the first half of the 19th century was greatly enhanced by the labor of African Americans.

 

But with the Union victory in the American Civil War, the slave-labor system was abolished in the South. This contributed to the decline of the postbellum Southern economy, but it was most affected by the continuing decline in the price of cotton through the end of the century.

 

That made it difficult for the region to recover from the war, as did its comparative lack of infrastructure, which kept products from markets. The South faced significant new competition from foreign cotton producers such as India and Egypt. Northern industry, which had expanded rapidly before and during the war, surged even further ahead of the South’s agricultural economy.

 

Industrialists from northeastern states came to dominate many aspects of the nation’s life, including social and some aspects of political affairs. The planter class of the South lost power temporarily. The rapid economic development following the Civil War accelerated the development of the modern U.S. industrial economy.

 

Twelve million Africans were shipped to the Americas from the 16th to the 19th centuries Of these, an estimated 645,000 were brought to what is now the United States. The largest number were shipped to Brazil. The slave population in the United States had grown to four million by the 1860 Census.

 

Africa’s Slave Trade to Colonialism to Liberation

 

 

 

The history behind Africa’s slave trade, how it started, and where in Africa it began first. African chiefs used to sell their own people in exchange for valued goods, or treasured assets. Then, when the Europeans arrived they began trading with them. The Europeans offered what they had in exchange for slaves and the slave trade became a widely known, and relevant phenomenon in most parts of the world.

 

America and Europe needed people who could do hard labor, who could do their work for them which were rigorous tasks. Slave traders came along the African coast, which was the Sub-region (South of the Sahara) to acquire slaves. They would get them in large numbers and pack them inside the ships they came with. Then, in the 1800s the slave trade was abolished by Abraham Lincoln and then European colonialism/imperialism became the new system in which mainly the Europeans created to strengthen their nations.

 

The necessity of raw materials, namely natural resources, led to European colonization. Also, to establish colonies which were brought up in the ways of the colonial powers, particularly Britain, France, Belgium, Portugal, Germany, among others in order to extend their influence both culturally, politically, socially, and religiously. The geographic borders one sees on the map today of Africa, were designed by the European colonial powers who wanted to divide the continent into sections whereby it would be clear who’s colony was where, and that each colony would stay within boundaries.

 

This was carried out in 1884 in Berlin, Germany. Africa’s resources were being exported immensely to the nations which ruled over certain colonies there, thus being distributed out to the rest of the world. After World War 2 and the establishment of the United Nations, nationalists movements began which internal self government came into focus and practice, thus leading to independence, sovereignty, and the emancipation /liberation of the African continent.

 

Pan Africanists/nationalists/freedom fighters like Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, Patrice Lumumba, Sekou Toure, among others came into being and agitated for independence.

 

 

African History BEFORE Slavery

 

 

 

Black History Month 2014 Presents: Celebrating Black History Month; The Black History Moment Series.

 

BLACK HISTORY: A slave auction was held near this location in Zanzibar for many years. This is an image of a sculpture, Memory for the Slaves by Clara Sörnäs, concrete, 1998.

BLACK HISTORY: A slave auction was held near this location in Zanzibar for many years. This is an image of a sculpture, Memory for the Slaves by Clara Sörnäs, concrete, 1998.

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #1. Slavery.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #2. The Middle Passage.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #3. Post Racial AmeriKKKa.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #4 The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month: The Black History Moment Series #5 Rosewood, Florida. The Rosewood Massacre.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #6: The Destruction of The Black Family.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #7: Black Indians In The United States.

 

 

Happy 101st Birthday Ms. Rosa Louise McCauley Parks.

 

 

Celebrating Black History Month, The Black History Moment Series #8: Charles H. Wright Museum Of African American History.

 

 

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Rosa Parks sits in the front of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1956 after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled segregation illegal on the city's bus system. Behind Parks is Nicholas C. Chriss, a UPI reporter covering the event.

Rosa Parks sits in the front of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1956 after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled segregation illegal on the city’s bus system. Behind Parks is Nicholas C. Chriss, a UPI reporter covering the event.

Barack Obama sitting on the bus. Parks was arrested sitting in the same row Obama is in, but on the opposite side.

Barack Obama sitting on the bus. Parks was arrested sitting in the same row Obama is in, but on the opposite side.

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A Picture Of Greatness. Black History is American History!

A Picture Of Greatness. Black History is American History!

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The President’s Trip To Germany: Videos & Photos


By Jueseppi B.

 

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The President’s Trip to Germany

 

PRESS RELEASES

 

JUNE 19, 2013

 

Remarks by President Obama and German Chancellor Merkel in an Exchange of Toasts — Berlin, Germany

 

 

Remarks by President Obama at the Brandenburg Gate — Berlin, Germany

 

 

Remarks by President Obama and German Chancellor Merkel in Joint Press Conference

 

 

 

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Germany: The Obama’s arrive in Berlin

 

Published on Jun 18, 2013

President Barack Obama flew in to Berlin’s Tegel Airport ahead of a two-day state visit to Berlin – his first visit to the German capital as US head of state. The US president will give a speech at the iconic Brandenburg gate to 4,000 people on Wednesday while his wife, Michelle Obama, will tour some historically significant sites around the city.

 

 

 

 

Raw: The President & First Family Obama Arrives in Berlin

 

Published on Jun 18, 2013

President Barack Obama arrived in Germany Tuesday for a 24-hour visit, the culmination of which will be a speech on Wednesday at Berlin’s iconic Brandenburg Gate. (June 18)

 

 

 

 

The First Family disembarking from Air Force One, after arriving at Tegel airport in Berlin.

The First Family disembarking from Air Force One, after arriving at Tegel airport in Berlin.

 

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Obama in Berlin

 

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Obama in Berlin

 

 

 

Obama in Berlin

 

 

President Obama’s motorcade in Berlin, Germany, 06-19-13

 

Published on Jun 19, 2013

ON the 18 and 19th of June 2013 US president Barack Obama visited the German captical city Berlin. Here the motorcade is seen going from his hotel at Potzdamer Platz (Potzdam Plaza), past the Brandenburg Gate (seen in the far distance of the video), westbound on 17th of June Street, a quarter around the Victory Column towards the Bellevue Palace.

 

 

 

 

President Barack Obama visits Germany

 

Published on Jun 19, 2013

President Barack Obama are in Germany for a official visit with German President Joachim Gauck at the Bellevue Palace.

 

 

 

 

 

 

President Obama and Chancellor Merkel Hold a Press Conference

June 19, 2013 | 46:32

 

President Obama and Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany hold a press conference.

 

 

 

 

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President Obama Speaks to the People of Berlin

June 19, 2013 | 28:38 | Public Domain

 

President Obama delivers remarks at the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin.

 

 

 

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President Barack Obama and German Chancellor Angela Merkel talk on a balcony overlooking Berlin, Germany, June 19, 2013. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

President Barack Obama and German Chancellor Angela Merkel talk on a balcony overlooking Berlin, Germany, June 19, 2013. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

 

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The President & First Family  leave Germany

 

 

 

Goodbye Germany.

Goodbye Germany.

 

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Obama family returns to Washington

 

Hello Barack's House.

Hello Barack’s House.

 

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Hello Barack’s House.

 

 

 

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The Black Forrest Welcomes The President!! The First Family Visits Germany!


By Jueseppi B.

 

The First Family disembarking from Air Force One, after arriving at Tegel airport in Berlin.

The First Family disembarking from Air Force One, after arriving at Tegel airport in Berlin.

 

 

Raw: Obama Arrives in Berlin

 

Published on Jun 18, 2013

President Barack Obama arrived in Germany Tuesday for a 24-hour visit, the culmination of which will be a speech on Wednesday at Berlin’s iconic Brandenburg Gate. (June 18)

 

 

 

 

 

The First Families Schedule In Germany

 

Wednesday – all times EST (6 hours behind Germany):

 

3:05 AM: The President and First Lady meet with Embassy personnel in Berlin.

 

 

4:00 AM: The President is welcomed by President Joachim Gauck in a ceremony at Schloss Bellevue, Berlin.

 

 

4:15 AM:   The President Holds a bilateral meeting with President Gauck.

 

 

5:00 AM:   The President Arrives at the German Chancellery and is welcomed by Chancellor Angela Merkel.

 

 

5:15 AM:   The President Holds a bilateral meeting with Chancellor Merkel.

 

 

6:00 AM:  The President Participates in a joint press conference with Chancellor Merkel.

 

 

7:35 AM: The President Joins Chancellor Merkel for a working lunch.

 

 

9:00 AM: The President Delivers remarks at the Brandenburg Gate.

 

 

10:05 AM: The President Signs the Golden Book of Berlin.

 

 

10:15 AM: The President Meets with Peer Steinbrueck of the Social Democratic Party.

 

 

12:45 PM: The President and First Lady arrive at Schloss Charlottenburg and are welcomed by Chancellor Merkel and her husband, Professor Joachim Sauer.

 

 

2:00 PM:   The President Attends dinner with Chancellor Merkel and Professor Sauer.

 

 

During the day, The First Lady Michelle Obama will visit the Asisi World of the Panoramas and the Berlin Wall Memorial.

 

 

3:55 PM: The President and First Family depart Germany for The United States of America.

 

 

12:40 AM: Arrive at The White House, Washington, D.C.

 

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Previewing the President’s Trip to Northern Ireland & Germany

June 17, 2013 | 02:19 | Public Domain

 

Deputy National Security Advisor, Ben Rhodes, briefs on the President’s trip to Northern Ireland & Germany.

 

 

 

 

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Obama in Berlin

 

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Obama in Berlin

 

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The President’s Trip To Northern Ireland For G-8 Summit.


 

By Jueseppi B.

 

The signatures of British Prime Minister David Cameron and US President Barack Obama on a patchwork quilt made by students working on a school project about the G8 summit

The signatures of British Prime Minister David Cameron and US President Barack Obama on a patchwork quilt made by students working on a school project about the G8 summit

 

 

THE PRESIDENT AND FIRST LADY‘S TRIP TO NORTHERN IRELAND & GERMANY
JUNE 17-19, 2013

G8 Summit: President Obama arrives in Northern Ireland

 

Published on Jun 17, 2013

President Obama has arrived in Northern Ireland for the G8 Summit on 17 and 18 June 2013. He will meet with other G8 leaders to discuss global issues including trade, tax and transparency.

For more information about the G8 Summit, visithttp://www.gov.uk/g8
Follow on Twitter: @G8 and @Number10gov

 

 

 

 

 

(G-8) and Germany 2013

At his fifth G-8, President Obama looks forward to consultations with key allies on shared security challenges and the global economy. In Belfast, Northern Ireland, the President will commend the people, leaders, and institutions on the tremendous progress of the past 15 years and highlight the continued need for progress toward peace and prosperity. In Berlin, Germany, President Obama will underscore the vital importance of the transatlantic alliance, the deep and enduring bonds between the United States and Germany, and the values that bind us with Europe.

 

 

See the President’s schedule.

 

 

READ MORE ABOUT THE 2013 G8 AT GOV.UK/G8
VIEW THE 2013 G8 FLICKR PHOTOS

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Previewing the President’s Trip to Northern Ireland & Germany

 

June 17, 2013 | 02:19 | Public Domain

Deputy National Security Advisor, Ben Rhodes, briefs on the President’s trip to Northern Ireland & Germany.

 

 

 

 

 

 

President Obama’s Trip Schedule

 

MONDAY

  • President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama speaks with Northern Ireland youth at the Waterfront Convention Center.
    WATCH THE VIDEO
  • President Obama takes part in the G-8 plenary session on the global economy with Leaders from Canada, the European Union, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the UK.
  • President Obama meets with Russian President Putin. The Leaders make statements at the conclusion of the meeting to pooled press.
  • In the evening, President Obama attends the G-8 dinner.

TUESDAY

  • In the morning, President Obama takes part in G-8 plenary session on counter-terrorism.
  • President Obama takes part in the G-8 plenary session on trade, tax, and transparency.
  • Later, President Obama attends the G-8 working lunch on development.
  • President Obama takes part in the G-8 closing session.
  • In the evening, the President travels to Berlin, Germany, where he meets with German officials and deliver a speech at the Brandenburg Gate.

 

 

WEDNESDAY

  • In the morning, President Obama meets with German President Gauck at Schloss Bellevue.
  • President Obama meets and lunches with German Chancellor Merkel at the Chancellery. There is a joint open press conference.
    WATCH LIVE AT 6:30AM ET
  • President Obama gives an address at the Brandenburg Gate. This event is open press.
    WATCH LIVE AT 9:00AM ET
  • President Obama meets with Peer Steinbrueck of the Social Democratic Party.
  • In the evening, President Obama attends a dinner and reception hosted by Chancellor Merkel at Schloss Charlottenburg.
  • President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama return to the United States.

 

 


The First Lady: Northern Ireland, Ireland, and Germany 2013

 

The First Lady travels to Belfast, Northern Ireland on the first leg of her trip the continue to Dublin, Ireland and finish in Berlin, Germany before returning to America.See the First Lady’s schedule.

 

 

 

First Lady Michelle Obama’s Trip Schedule

 

MONDAY

  • President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama speaks with Northern Ireland youth at the Waterfront Convention Center.
    WATCH THE VIDEO
  • First Lady Michelle Obama visits Trinity College Dublin and explore archives documenting the Obamas’ Irish ancestry.
  • First Lady Michelle Obama meets with the staff and families of U.S Embassy in Dublin.
  • First Lady Michelle Obama joins Fionnuala Kenny, Sabina Higgins and Irish youth, for a special performance at the historic Gaiety Theatre in Dublin.

 

 

WEDNESDAY

  • First Lady Michelle Obama visits the Asisi World of the Panoramas and the Berlin Wall Memorial with Professor Joachim Sauer.
  • President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama return to the United States.

 

 

 

hannah

 

 

Belfast schoolgirl Hannah Nelson steals show before Barack Obama speech

 

Published on Jun 17, 2013

Student Hannah Nelson, 16, introduced the US President and First Lady at an event in Belfast with an empassioned speech about the future of Northern Ireland. Read more…

Addressing 2,000 school children gathered at Waterfront Hall, Miss Nelson said she wanted to see a permanent peace in Ulster.

“We should not let the past pull us apart and stop us moving forward. Somehow we need to make a brighter future, a future that builds bridges and brings people together,” she said.

The Methody student won the chance to introduce the Obamas on stage after writing an essay on maintaining peace in Northern Ireland.

Hannah sat down to write her essay last Saturday during a break from studying for her GCSEs. She entered it the next day in a competition run by the US Consul in Northern Ireland – and won.

She was chosen to read her address from the US President’s own podium at an event that would be beamed around the world.

“I’m a shy girl, who has never done this kind of thing before,” she said.

But when she took to the stage, dressed in the dark navy colours of her grammar school, and flanked by hundreds of school children just like her in their own uniforms, she delivered a polished performance.

Facing politicians and dignitaries in the gallery, including First and Deputy First Ministers Peter Robinson and Martin McGuinness, she assuredly told them a new Northern Ireland was possible.

“I just realised everyone is the same as me, peace is something we need to achieve in Northern Ireland,” she said.

“It is achievable and I just want to live in a society where we are safe and can be friends with everybody and there are no divisions.

“That’s what I want so I decided I would try to write something about that,” she said.

The teenager said she did not have any plans for a career in politics and was focussing on her upcoming A-Levels in Chemistry, Physics, Maths, and French.

For now, though, she said she was looking forward to flying out to Portugal with her grandmother for a well-deserved break after her exams.

 

 

 

 

 

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Interview With Hannah Nelson Student Who Introduced Michelle Obama In Belfast

 

 

Hannah Nelson at G8 summit
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President Obama Speaks to the People of Northern Ireland

 

 

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June 17, 2013 | 36:15 | Public Domain

Following an introduction by First Lady Michelle Obama, President Obama delivers remarks to the people of Northern Ireland, highlighting the hard work, dialogue, and institutional development they have undertaken together to advance peace and prosperity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. President Obama speaks to students and other guests at Belfast Waterfront in Belfast

 

 

 

Speeches and Remarks

 

June 17, 2013

 

Remarks by President Obama and President Putin of Russia After Bilateral Meeting

 

 

Remarks by the First Lady at Irish Youth Performance of “Riverdance”

 

 

Remarks by President Obama, U.K. Prime Minister Cameron, European Commission President Barroso, and European Council President Van Rompuy on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

 

 

Remarks by President Obama and Mrs. Obama in Town Hall with Youth of Northern Ireland

 

 

First Lady Michelle Obama with her daughters Malia and Sasha in the crowd at the Gaiety Theatre, Dublin for a special performance of Riverdance

First Lady Michelle Obama with her daughters Malia and Sasha in the crowd at the Gaiety Theatre, Dublin for a special performance of Riverdance

 

 

Statements and Releases

 

June 17, 2013

 

Fact Sheet: President Obama Increases Humanitarian Assistance to Syrians

 

 

Presidential Nominations Sent to the Senate

 

 

Fact Sheet: United States and the Russian Federation Sign New Bilateral Framework on Threat Reduction

 

 

Fact Sheet: U.S.-Russian Cooperation on Information and Communications Technology Security

 

 

U.S.-Russia Joint Statements

 

 

Joint Statement of the Presidents of the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Cooperation in Countering Terrorism

 

 

Joint Statement by the Presidents of the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Enhanced Bilateral Engagement

 

 

Joint Statement by the Presidents of the United States of America and the Russian Federation on a New Field of Cooperation in Confidence Building

 

 

Message to Congress — Continuation of the National Emergency with Respect to the Western Balkans

 

 

Notice to Congress — Continuation of the National Emergency with Respect to the Western Balkans

 

 

Fact Sheet: Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP)

 

 

Fact Sheet: U.S. Support for Northern Ireland Peace and Prosperity

 

 

Readout of President Obama’s Call with President Park Geun-hye of the Republic of Korea

 

 

President Obama reacts as the sun comes out as he works alongside Britain’s Prime Minister David Cameron and students on a school project about the G8 summit during a visit to the Enniskillen Integrated Primary School

President Obama reacts as the sun comes out as he works alongside Britain’s Prime Minister David Cameron and students on a school project about the G8 summit during a visit to the Enniskillen Integrated Primary School

 

President Obama meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin during the G8 Summit at Lough Erne in Enniskillen

President Obama meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin during the G8 Summit at Lough Erne in Enniskillen

 

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Watch President Obama and Russian President Putin Speak at the G8 Conference

 

Published on Jun 17, 2013

U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Vladimir Putin spoke together at the G8 conference.

 

 

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Barack and Michelle Obama wave to the crowd in the Belfast Waterfront Hall
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President Obama Makes a Statement on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

 

Published on Jun 17, 2013

President Obama makes a statement on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership in Lough Erne, Northern Ireland. June 17, 2013.

 

 

 

 

 

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Michelle Obama at the Gaiety Theatre, Dublin (Part 1)

 

 

 

 

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Michelle Obama at the Gaiety Theatre, Dublin (Part 2)

 

 

 

 

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Guests including Northern Ireland’s Chief Constable Matt Baggott (front left), Lord Chief Justice Sir Declan Morgan (third left front) and Dame Mary Peters (front right) join in a Mexican wave while they wait for the arrival of President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama at the Waterfront Hall, Belfast

Guests including Northern Ireland’s Chief Constable Matt Baggott (front left), Lord Chief Justice Sir Declan Morgan (third left front) and Dame Mary Peters (front right) join in a Mexican wave while they wait for the arrival of President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama at the Waterfront Hall, Belfast

 

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First Lady Michelle Obama and her daughters, Sasha and Malia with Dr Patrick Prendergast, President and Provost of Trinity College Dublin, during their visit to view the Book of Kells and archives documenting the Obama’s Irish ancestry & viewing the Obama Family Collection, with Fiona Fitzsimons, director of genealogy research service Eneclann

First Lady Michelle Obama and her daughters, Sasha and Malia with Dr Patrick Prendergast, President and Provost of Trinity College Dublin, during their visit to view the Book of Kells and archives documenting the Obama’s Irish ancestry & viewing the Obama Family Collection, with Fiona Fitzsimons, director of genealogy research service Eneclann

 

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g1a9028President Barack Obama and British Prime Minister David Cameron visit with school children at Enniskillen Primary School, Enniskillen, Northern Ireland, June 17, 2013. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

 

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President Obama, the First Lady and their daughters Sasha and Malia are greeted by Joan Christie, the Queen’s official representative in Northern Ireland, upon their arrival at Belfast International Airport

President Obama, the First Lady and their daughters Sasha and Malia are greeted by Joan Christie, the Queen’s official representative in Northern Ireland, upon their arrival at Belfast International Airport

 

Reaffirming the Incredible Bond Between the United States and Ireland

 

 

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