By Jueseppi B.
Boston Marathon looks to emerge from shadow of 2013 bombing
BY SCOTT MALONE
(Reuters) – Runners from the world’s elite racers to first-timers will step to the Boston Marathon starting line on Monday for the first time the race has been held since last year’s deadly bombing attack.
Some 36,000 people, the second-largest field in the race’s 118-year history, will set out from Hopkinton, a town west of Boston, for the 26.2-mile race that finishes on Boston’s Boylston Street, where two homemade pressure-cooker bombs last year killed three people and injured 264.
The fans, hundreds of thousands of whom are expected to line the course, will also be rooting for top U.S. entrants including Ryan Hall of California and Desiree Linden of Michigan. Either could be the first American to stand atop the podium in three decades, breaking a long domination of the event by African athletes.
Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick on Sunday told CBS’s “Face the Nation” that added security measures, including a higher than usual police presence, would assure a “very safe” atmosphere at the race.
“Somebody said it may be the safest place in America tomorrow,” Patrick said.
STRIKE A BALANCE
While more police tactical units and undercover operatives will be stationed along the route, Patrick said there was an effort to provide adequate security while retaining the race’s traditional atmosphere so that it does not become “a race through a militarized zone.”
Racers and supporters will face new restrictions including a ban on backpacks, which the ethnic Chechen brothers accused in the April 15, 2013, attack were believed to have used to carry the bombs.
While the memory of the attacks has hung heavy over Boston through a week of events leading up to the race, Linden said it wouldn’t affect her thinking come race day.
“That’s a backward thought process,” said Linden, who in 2011 finished in second place, missing victory by two seconds. “I don’t need a terrorist event to be motivated. I’m inspired by the city and the people and I’ll honor that … Boston is such a big event in itself that you don’t need extra motivation, especially not that kind.”
The Boston Athletic Association, which organizes the race, allowed an additional 9,000 runners this year, in part to ensure that the roughly 5,000 people who were on the course when the blasts occurred get a chance to cross this finish line.
Many runners train for years to post the fast, age-graded qualifying times needed to earn a spot, while others commit to raising thousands of dollars for charity.
Runners and marathon workers who attended Easter Mass at the cathedral on Sunday were invited to the front to be blessed by Boston cardinal Sean O’Malley.
Memories of last year’s attack were stirred after a memorial service on Tuesday, when a shoeless man in a black veil, shouting “Boston Strong” dropped a backpack on the street near the finish line.
Police said the backpack contained a rice cooker. The man was arrested and charged with possession of a hoax device.
Joseph Tecce, an associate professor of psychology at Boston College, said seeing the race go off smoothly could help people overcome their memories of the attack.
“There will be fears, nagging doubts and insecurities, but there will also be an anticipation that it’s all going to go away if we just wait until April 21, when people start hitting the street again.”
One runner on Monday will be Lukman Faily, the Iraqi ambassador to the United States, who will take part to show solidarity with the people of Boston and the United States. It will not be his first marathon, as he also ran after the 2011 Fukushima tsunami while stationed in Japan.
“We will stand with each other in defying terrorism and making a pure sporting event, a sporting statement that terrorism will never prevail,” Faily said. “If the marathon was stopped because of last year’s event, then they would have won.”
On April 7, the Boston Public Library opened an exhibit featuring items left at the makeshift memorials after the bombings at last year’s Boston Marathon. The free exhibit, called “Dear Boston: Messages from the Marathon Memorial,” is open to the public until May 11.
The memorial, which originally began forming on police barricades on Boylston and Berkeley Streets, was moved to Copley Square when the roads reopened on April 23, 2013. In June, the memorial was dismantled, and the items were stored in the Boston City Archives.
Bostonian Rainey Tisdale, the curator of the exhibition, started organizing the thousands of items in early February. From shoes to posters to finisher’s medals, Tisdale said she realized a common thread: “Each of these pieces that was left in Copley Square was a message, a form of communication from one human being to other human beings at this time of great loss.”
Unlike other projects she has worked on, Tisdale said, “Dear Boston” weighed heavily on her emotionally.
“It was very intense as anyone could imagine,” said Tisdale, who watched her husband run the Boston Marathon in 2012. “I think there’s a way in which all of the emotion that was embedded in those objects had to move through me to end up here in the exhibition. Because we were moving so quickly, we had two months to do what normally takes us a year, there wasn’t time to decompress from that.”
The space in the library moves visitors through three stages: the initial, raw reactions of sadness and compassion; the more profound reflections about the attacks; and finally the messages of hope that look toward a brighter future. At the end of the exhibit, guests are encouraged to leave their own message on tags to hang on one of four trees that resemble those found in Copley Square.
“Normally, I’m helping city residents make meaning from the place that they live,” said Tisdale. “This was an event where I knew my city was going to have a lot of trouble making meaning, a very hard, complicated thing. I felt like I had resources and expertise to bring to this and my city needs it.”
Once the “Dear World” exhibit closes, the items will be returned to the Boston City Archives. The funder of the exhibit, Iron Mountain, is working to digitize the entire collection. Some objects are already available online in the Our Marathon collection hosted by Northeastern University.
The exhibit is part of a city-wide effort between cultural institutions called “#BostonBetter” that will feature concerts and talks surrounding the first anniversary of the attacks. To learn more, check out the website.
Boston Marathon Bombing Memorial -Copley Square 6/1/2013
Published on Jun 1, 2013
A look during the day…..of moving, large Memorial! Nice to see people are still paying respects! Crowded Saturday. We’ll NEVER FORGET!!!
The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon hosted by several cities in Greater Bostonin eastern Massachusetts. It is always held on Patriots’ Day, the third Monday of April. Begun in 1897, inspired by the success of the first modern-day marathon competition in the 1896 Summer Olympics, the Boston Marathon is the world’s oldest annual marathon and ranks as one of the world’s best-known road racing events. It is one of six World Marathon Majors.
Since 1897, the Boston Athletic Association (B.A.A.) has managed this event. Amateur and professional runners from all over the world compete in the Boston Marathon each year, braving the hilly New England terrain and varying weather to take part in the race.
The event attracts 500,000 spectators each year, making it New England’s most widely viewed sporting event. Though starting with 18 participants in 1897, the event now attracts an average of about 20,000 registered participants each year, with 26,839 people entering in 2013. The Centennial Boston Marathon in 1996 established a record as the world’s largest marathon with 38,708 entrants, 36,748 starters, and 35,868 finishers.
The Boston Marathon logo
|Date||Third Monday of April|
ending in Boston
|Course records||Men: 2:03:02 (2011)
Women: 2:20:43 (2002)
The Boston Marathon was first run in April 1897, inspired by the revival of the marathon for the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens. It is the oldest continuously running marathon, and the second longest continuously running footrace in North America, having debuted five months after the Buffalo Turkey Trot.
On April 19, 1897, ten years after the establishment of the B.A.A., the association held the 24.5 mile (39.4 km) marathon to conclude its athletic competition, the B.A.A. Games. The event was scheduled for the recently established holiday of Patriots Day, with the race linking the Athenian and American struggles for liberty. The race, which became known as the Boston Marathon, has been held every year since then, making it the world’s oldest annual marathon. In 1924, the starting line was moved from Metcalf’s Mill in Ashland to Hopkinton Green and the course was lengthened to 26 miles 385 yards (42.195 km) to conform to the standard set by the 1908 Summer Olympics and codified by the IAAF in 1921.
The Boston Marathon was originally a local event, but its fame and status have attracted runners from all over the world. For most of its history, the Boston Marathon was a free event, and the only prize awarded for winning the race was a wreath woven from olive branches. However,corporate-sponsored cash prizes began to be awarded in the 1980s, when professional athletes began to refuse to run the race without cash awards. The first cash prize for winning the marathon was awarded in 1986.
Walter A. Brown was the President of the Boston Athletic Association from 1941 to 1964. In 1951, during the height of the Korean War, Brown denied Koreans entry into the Boston Marathon. He stated: “While American soldiers are fighting and dying in Korea, every Korean should be fighting to protect his country instead of training for marathons. As long as the war continues there, we positively will not accept Korean entries for our race on April 19.”
Women were not allowed to enter the Boston Marathon officially until 1972. Roberta “Bobbi” Gibb is recognized, by the race organizers, as the first woman to run the entire Boston Marathon (in 1966). In 1967, Kathrine Switzer, who had registered as “K. V. Switzer”, was the first woman to run and finish with a race number. She finished despite a famous incident in which race official Jock Semple tried to rip off her numbers and eject her from the race. In 1996 the B.A.A. retroactively recognized as champions the unofficial women’s leaders of 1966 through 1971. In 2011, about 43 percent of the entrants were female.
Rosie Ruiz scandal
Scandal came to the Boston Marathon in 1980 when amateur runner Rosie Ruiz came from out of nowhere to win the women’s race. Marathon officials became suspicious when it was discovered Ruiz did not appear in race videotapes until near the end of the race. A subsequent investigation concluded that Ruiz had skipped most of the race and blended into the crowd about one mile (1.6 km) from the finish line, where she then ran to her apparent victory. Ruiz was officially disqualified, and the winner was proclaimed to be Canadian Jacqueline Gareau.
2011 Boston Marathon
On Monday, April 18, 2011 Geoffrey Mutai of Kenya won the Boston Marathon in a time of 2:03:02. In recognizing Mutai’s mark as the “fastest Marathon ever run”, the International Association of Athletics Federations noted that the performance was not eligible for world record status given that the course does not satisfy rules regarding elevation drop and start/finish separation (the latter requirement being intended to prevent advantages gained from a strong tailwind, as was the case in 2011).
The Associated Press reported that Mutai has the support of other runners who describe the IAAF’s rules as “flawed”. According to the Boston Herald, race director Dave McGillivray said he was sending paperwork to the IAAF to have Mutai’s mark ratified as a world record. The AP also indicated that the attempt to have the mark certified as a world record “would force the governing bodies to reject an unprecedented performance on the world’s most prestigious marathon course”.
During the 2013 Boston Marathon, on April 15, 2013 at 2:49 p.m. EDT, nearly three hours after the winners crossed the finish line, two explosions occurred about 200 yards (180 m) apart on Boylston Street, in approximately the last 225 yards (205 m) of the course. The race was halted, preventing many from finishing. Three spectators were killed and more than 200 people were injured. Entrants who completed at least half the course and did not finish due to the bombings are to get automatic entry in 2014.
The Boston Marathon is open to runners 18 or older from any nation, but they must meet certain qualifying standards. To qualify, a runner must first complete a standard marathon course certified by a national governing body affiliated with the International Association of Athletics Federations within a certain period of time before the date of the desired Boston Marathon (usually within approximately 18 months prior).
(effective for 2014 race)
|18–34||3hrs 5min||3 hrs 35min|
|35–39||3hrs 10min||3 hrs 40min|
|40–44||3hrs 15min||3 hrs 45min|
|45–49||3hrs 25min||3 hrs 55min|
|50–54||3hrs 30min||4 hrs 0min|
|55–59||3hrs 40min||4 hrs 10min|
|60–64||3hrs 55min||4 hrs 25min|
|65–69||4hrs 10min||4 hrs 40min|
|70–74||4hrs 25min||4 hrs 55min|
|75–79||4hrs 40min||5 hrs 10min|
|80+||4hrs 55min||5 hrs 25min|
In the 1980s and 1990s, membership in USA Track & Field was required of all runners, but this requirement has been eliminated.
Qualifying standards for the 2013 race were tightened on February 15, 2011, by five minutes in each age-gender group for marathons run after September 23, 2011. Prospective runners in the age range of 18–34 must run a time of no more than 3:05:00 (3 hours and 5 minutes) if male, or 3:35:00 (3 hours and 35 minutes) if female; the qualifying time is adjusted upward as age increases. In addition, the 59-second grace period on qualifying times has been completely eliminated; for example, a 40- to 44-year-old male will no longer qualify with a time of 3:15:01. For many marathoners to qualify for Boston (to “BQ”) is a goal and achievement in itself.
An exception to the qualification times is for runners who receive entries from partners. About one-fifth of the marathon’s spots are reserved each year for charities, sponsors, vendors, licensees, consultants, municipal officials, local running clubs, and marketers. In 2010, about 5,470 additional runners received entries through partners, including 2,515 charity runners. The marathon currently allocates spots to two dozen charities who in turn are expected to raise more than $10 million a year.
On October 18, 2010, the 20,000 spots reserved for qualifiers were filled in a record-setting eight hours and three minutes. The speed of registration prompted the B.A.A. to change its qualifying standards for the 2013 marathon onward. In addition to lowering qualifying times, the change includes a rolling application process, which gives faster runners priority. Organizers decided not to significantly adjust the number of non-qualifiers.
The race has traditionally been held on Patriots’ Day, a state holiday in Massachusetts, and until 1969 that was every April 19, whichever day of the week that fell on. Starting in 1969, the holiday was observed on the third Monday in April and so the marathon date was correspondingly fixed to that Monday, often referred to by local residents as “Marathon Monday.”
Through 2005, the race began at noon (wheelchair race at 11:25 am, and elite women at 11:31 am), at the official starting point in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Beginning with the 2006 event, the race has used a staggered “wave start,” where (in 2006) top seeded runners (the elite men’s group) and a first batch of up to 10,000 runners started at noon, with a second group starting at 12:30. Beginning in 2007 the starting times for the race were moved up, allowing runners to take advantage of cooler temperatures and enabling the roads to be reopened earlier. The marathon later added a third wave to help further stagger the runners and reduce congestion.
As of 2013, the starting times are:
- 9:00 a.m.: Mobility Impaired Program
- 9:17 a.m.: Push Rim Wheelchair Division
- 9:22 a.m.: Handcycle Participants
- 9:32 a.m.: Elite Women
- 10:00 a.m.: Elite Men and Wave One
- 10:20 a.m.: Wave Two
- 10:40 a.m.: Wave Three
The course runs through 26 miles 385 yards (42.195 km) of winding roads, following Route 135, Route 16, Route 30 and city streets into the center of Boston, where the official finish line is located at Copley Square, alongside the Boston Public Library. The race runs through eight Massachusetts cities and towns: Hopkinton, Ashland, Framingham, Natick,Wellesley, Newton, Brookline, and Boston.
The Boston Marathon is considered to be one of the more difficult marathon courses because of the Newton hills, which culminate in Heartbreak Hill near Boston College. While the three hills on Commonwealth Avenue (Route 30) are better known, a preceding hill on Washington Street (Route 16), climbing from the Charles River crossing at 16 miles (26 km), is regarded by Dave McGillivray, the long-term race director, as the course’s most difficult challenge. This hill, which follows a 150-foot (46 m) drop in a half-mile stretch, forces many lesser-trained runners to a walking pace.
Heartbreak Hill is an ascent over 0.4-mile (600 m) between the 20 and 21-mile (32 and 34 km) marks, near Boston College. It is the last of four “Newton hills”, which begin at the 16-mile (26 km) mark and challenge contestants with late (if modest) climbs after the course’s general downhill trend to that point. Though Heartbreak Hill itself rises only 88 feet (27 m) vertically (from an elevation of 148 feet (45 m) to 236 feet (72 m)), it comes in the portion of a marathon distance where muscle glycogen stores are most likely to be depleted—a phenomenon referred to by marathoners as “hitting the wall.”
It was on this hill that, in 1936, defending champion John A. “Johnny” Kelley overtook Ellison “Tarzan” Brown, giving him a consolatory pat on the shoulder as he passed. This gesture renewed the competitive drive in Brown, who rallied, pulled ahead of Kelley, and went on to win—thereby, it was said, breaking Kelley’s heart.
Because the course drops 459 feet (140 m) from start to finish and the start is quite far west of the finish, allowing a helpful tailwind, the Boston Marathon does not satisfy two of the criteria necessary for the ratification of world or American records.
On April 18, 2011, Geoffrey Mutai of Kenya ran the fastest marathon ever in a time of 2:03:02 at the 2011 Boston Marathon. Margaret Okayo, also from Kenya, set the women’s course record with a 2:20:43 performance in 2002.
Other course records include:
- Men’s Masters: John Campbell (New Zealand), 2:11:04 (set in 1990)
- Women’s Masters: Mary Hannah (United States), 2:27:58 (set in 2012)
- Men’s Push Rim Wheelchair: Joshua Cassidy (Canada), 1:18:25 (set in 2012)
- Women’s Push Rim Wheelchair: Jean Driscoll (United States), 1:34:22 (set in 1994)
On only four occasions have world record times for marathon running been set in Boston. In 1947, the men’s record time set was 2:25:39, by Suh Yun-Bok of South Korea. In 1975, a women’s world record of 2:42:24 was set by Liane Winter of West Germany, and in 1983, Joan Benoit Samuelson of the United States ran a women’s world record time of 2:22:43. In 2012 Joshua Cassidy of Canada set a men’s wheelchair marathon world-record time of 1:18:25.
The race’s organizers keep a standard time clock for all entries, though official timekeeping ceases after the six-hour mark.
With approximately 500,000 spectators, the Boston Marathon is New England‘s most widely viewed sporting event. About 1,000 media members from more than 100 outlets received media credentials in 2011.
For the entire distance of the race, thousands line the sides of the course to cheer the runners on, encourage them, and provide free water and snacks to the runners.
It is a tradition that at Mile 21 Boston College students drink to the accomplishments of the runners and enthusiastically cheer them on.
At Wellesley College, a women’s college, it is traditional for the students to cheer on the runners in what is referred to as the Scream Tunnel. For about a quarter of a mile (400 m), the students line the course, scream, and offer kisses. The Scream Tunnel is so loud runners claim it can be heard from a mile away. The tunnel is roughly half a mile (0.8 km) prior to the halfway mark of the course.
Boston Red Sox
Every year, the Boston Red Sox play a home game at Fenway Park, starting at 11:05 am. When the game ends, the crowd empties into Kenmore Square to cheer as the runners enter the final mile. This tradition started in 1903. In the 1940s, the American League and National League teams in the city would alternate yearly as to which would play the morning game. (Boston had teams in both leagues from 1903 to 1952.) In 2007, the game between the Red Sox and the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim was delayed until 12:18 pm due to heavy rain. The marathon, which had previously been run in a wide variety of weather conditions, was not delayed.
Dick and Rick Hoyt
One of the most recognized duos each year at the Boston Marathon is Dick and Rick Hoyt. Dick is the father of Rick, who has cerebral palsy. While doctors said he would never have a normal life and thought that institutionalizing Rick was the best option, Dick and his wife disagreed and raised him as an ordinary child. Eventually a computer device was developed that helped Rick communicate with his family, and they learned that one of his biggest passions was sports. “Team Hoyt” (Dick and Rick) started competing in charity runs, with Dick pushing Rick in a wheelchair. Dick and Rick have competed in 66 marathons and 229 triathlons (as of August 2008). Their top marathon finish was 2:40:47. The team completed their 30th Boston Marathon in 2012, when Dick was 72 and Rick was 50.
Unlike many other races, the Boston Marathon tolerates bandits, or runners who do not register and pay an entry fee. They are held back until after all the registered runners have left the starting line, and then are released in an unofficial fourth wave. They are also not pulled off the course and are allowed to cross the finish line.
Given the increased field that is planned for the 2014 Marathon, however, organizers plan to discourage bandits from running “more than ever.”
A number of people choose to run the course in a variety of costumes each year. During the 100th running in 1997, one runner wore a scale model of the Old North Church steeple on his back. Old North Church is where the signal that set Paul Revere off on his midnight ride was lit, and which is commemorated each year on the same day as the Marathon.
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