February 21, 1965, New York City, NY. Malcolm X Assassinated.


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I miss this man terribly. In light of the lack one single worthwhile Black leaders in today’s racial climate, we need Minister Malcolm X more than ever, his wisdom and his guidance.

Malcolm X Assassinated. February 21, 1965, New York City, NY.

 

In New York City, Malcolm X, an African American nationalist and religious leader, is assassinated by rival Black Muslims while addressing his Organization of Afro-American Unity at the Audubon Ballroom in Washington Heights.

 

Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1925, Malcolm was the son of James Earl Little, a Baptist preacher who advocated the black nationalist ideals of Marcus Garvey. Threats from the Ku Klux Klan forced the family to move to Lansing, Michigan, where his father continued to preach his controversial sermons despite continuing threats. In 1931, Malcolm’s father was brutally murdered by the white supremacist Black Legion, and Michigan authorities refused to prosecute those responsible. In 1937, Malcolm was taken from his family by welfare caseworkers. By the time he reached high school age, he had dropped out of school and moved to Boston, where he became increasingly involved in criminal activities.

 

In 1946, at the age of 21, Malcolm was sent to prison on a burglary conviction. It was there he encountered the teachings of Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam, whose members are popularly known as Black Muslims. The Nation of Islam advocated black nationalism and racial separatism and condemned Americans of European descent as immoral “devils.” Muhammad’s teachings had a strong effect on Malcolm, who entered into an intense program of self-education and took the last name “X” to symbolize his stolen African identity.

 

After six years, Malcolm was released from prison and became a loyal and effective minister of the Nation of Islam in Harlem, New York. In contrast with civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X advocated self-defense and the liberation of African Americans “by any means necessary.” A fiery orator, Malcolm was admired by the African American community in New York and around the country.

 

In the early 1960s, he began to develop a more outspoken philosophy than that of Elijah Muhammad, whom he felt did not sufficiently support the civil rights movement. In late 1963, Malcolm’s suggestion that President John F. Kennedy‘s assassination was a matter of the “chickens coming home to roost” provided Elijah Muhammad, who believed that Malcolm had become too powerful, with a convenient opportunity to suspend him from the Nation of Islam.

 

A few months later, Malcolm formally left the organization and made a Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, where he was profoundly affected by the lack of racial discord among orthodox Muslims. He returned to America as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz and in June 1964 founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity, which advocated black identity and held that racism, not the white race, was the greatest foe of the African American. Malcolm’s new movement steadily gained followers, and his more moderate philosophy became increasingly influential in the civil rights movement, especially among the leaders of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.

 

On February 21, 1965, one week after his home was firebombed, Malcolm X was shot to death by Nation of Islam members while speaking at a rally of his organization in New York City.

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Malcolm X

Malcolm X (/ˈmælkəm ˈɛks/; May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), born Malcolm Little and also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Arabic: الحاجّ مالك الشباز‎), was an African-American Muslim minister and a human rights activist. To his admirers he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans; detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.

 

Malcolm X was effectively orphaned early in life. His father was killed when he was six and his mother was placed in a mental hospital when he was thirteen, after which he lived in a series of foster homes.

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In 1946, at age 20, he went to prison for larceny and breaking and entering. While in prison he became a member of the Nation of Islam, and after his parole in 1952 quickly rose to become one of its leaders. For a dozen years he was the public face of the controversial group; in keeping with the Nation’s teachings he espoused black supremacy, advocated the separation of black and white Americans and scoffed at the civil rights movement’s emphasis on integration.

 

By March 1964, Malcolm X had grown disillusioned with the Nation of Islam and its leader Elijah Muhammad. He ultimately repudiated the Nation and its teachings and embraced Sunni Islam. After a period of travel in Africa and the Middle East, he returned to the United States to found Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. While continuing to emphasize Pan-Africanism, black self-determination, and black self-defense, he disavowed racism, saying, “I did many things as a [Black] Muslim that I’m sorry for now. I was a zombie then … pointed in a certain direction and told to march”.

 

In February 1965, shortly after repudiating the Nation of Islam, he was assassinated by three of its members. The Autobiography of Malcolm X, published shortly after his death, is considered one of the most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century.

 

Assassination

On February 21, 1965, Malcolm X was preparing to address the Organization of Afro-American Unity in Manhattan’s Audubon Ballroom when someone in the 400-person audience yelled, “Nigger! Get your hand outta my pocket!” As Malcolm X and his bodyguards tried to quell the disturbance, a man rushed forward and shot him once in the chest with a sawed-off shotgun; two other men charged the stage firing semi-automatic handguns. Malcolm X was pronounced dead at 3:30 pm, shortly after arriving at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. The autopsy identified 21 gunshot wounds to the chest, left shoulder, arms and legs, including ten buckshot wounds from the initial shotgun blast.

Malcolm X stands on guard, ready to protect his family, in this iconic photo.

Malcolm X stands on guard, ready to protect his family, in this iconic photo.

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One gunman, Nation of Islam member Talmadge Hayer (also known as Thomas Hagan) was beaten by the crowd before police arrived; witnesses identified the others as Nation members Norman 3X Butler and Thomas 15X Johnson. All three were convicted in March 1966 and sentenced to life in prison. (At trial Hayer confessed, but refused to identify the other assailants except to assert that they were not Butler and Johnson; in 1977 and 1978 he reasserted their innocence and named four other Nation members as participants in the murder or its planning.)

 

Butler, today known as Muhammad Abdul Aziz, was paroled in 1985 and became the head of the Nation’s Harlem mosque in 1998; he maintains his innocence. In prison Johnson, who changed his name to Khalil Islam, rejected the Nation’s teachings and converted to Sunni Islam; released in 1987, he maintained his innocence until his death in August 2009. Hayer, today known as Mujahid Halim, was paroled in 2010.

 

Funeral

The public viewing, February 23–26 at Unity Funeral Home in Harlem, was attended by some 14,000 to 30,000 mourners. For the funeral on February 27, loudspeakers were set up for the overflow crowd outside Harlem’s thousand-seat Faith Temple of the Church of God in Christ, and a local television station carried the service live.

 

Among the civil rights leaders attending were John Lewis, Bayard Rustin, James Forman, James Farmer, Jesse Gray, and Andrew Young. Actor and activist Ossie Davis delivered the eulogy, describing Malcolm X as “our shining black prince”:

 

There are those who will consider it their duty, as friends of the Negro people, to tell us to revile him, to flee, even from the presence of his memory, to save ourselves by writing him out of the history of our turbulent times. Many will ask what Harlem finds to honor in this stormy, controversial and bold young captain—​and we will smile. Many will say turn away—​away from this man, for he is not a man but a demon, a monster, a subverter and an enemy of the black man—​and we will smile. They will say that he is of hate—​a fanatic, a racist—​who can only bring evil to the cause for which you struggle! And we will answer and say to them: Did you ever talk to Brother Malcolm? Did you ever touch him, or have him smile at you? Did you ever really listen to him? Did he ever do a mean thing? Was he ever himself associated with violence or any public disturbance? For if you did you would know him. And if you knew him you would know why we must honor him.

 

Malcolm X was buried at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York. Friends used the gravediggers’ shovels to complete the burial themselves.

 

Actor and activist Ruby Dee and Juanita Poitier (wife of Sidney Poitier) established the Committee of Concerned Mothers to raise money toward a home for the family and for the children’s educations.

 

Allegations of conspiracy

 

A man in a bow-tie and suit is smiling

Within days, the question of who bore ultimate responsibility for the assassination was being publicly debated. On February 23, James Farmer, the leader of the Congress of Racial Equality, announced at a news conference that local drug dealers, and not the Nation of Islam, were to blame. Others accused the NYPD, the FBI, or the CIA, citing the lack of police protection, the ease with which the assassins entered the Audubon Ballroom, and the failure of the police to preserve the crime scene.

 

In the 1970s, the public learned about COINTELPRO and other secret FBI programs established to infiltrate and disrupt civil rights organizations during the 1950s and 1960s. John Ali, national secretary of the Nation of Islam, was identified as an FBI undercover agent. Malcolm X had confided to a reporter that Ali exacerbated tensions between him and Elijah Muhammad, and that he considered Ali his “archenemy” within the Nation of Islam leadership. Ali had a meeting with Talmadge Hayer, one of the men convicted of killing Malcolm X, the night before the assassination.

 

Some, including the Shabazz family, have accused Louis Farrakhan of involvement in Malcolm X’s assassination, and in a 1993 speech Farrakhan seemed to acknowledge the possibility that the Nation of Islam was responsible:

 

Was Malcolm your traitor or ours? And if we dealt with him like a nation deals with a traitor, what the hell business is it of yours? A nation has to be able to deal with traitors and cutthroats and turncoats.

 

In a 60 Minutes interview that aired during May 2000, Farrakhan stated that some things he said may have led to the assassination of Malcolm X. “I may have been complicit in words that I spoke”, he said. “I acknowledge that and regret that any word that I have said caused the loss of life of a human being.”[202] A few days later Farrakhan denied that he “ordered the assassination” of Malcolm X, although he again acknowledged that he “created the atmosphere that ultimately led to Malcolm X’s assassination.”

 

No consensus on who was responsible has been reached.

Farrakhan admits to Malcolm X assassination

 

Malcolm X’s Daughter Exposes Farrakhan (The Extended Clip)

Uploaded on Jan 9, 2012

Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan admits in a 60 Minutes interview and reported on CBS Evening News that his incendiary rhetoric played a role in the 1965 assassination of civil rights leader Malcolm X.

 

 

The Autobiography of Malcolm X

The Autobiography of Malcolm X was published in 1965, the result of a collaboration between human rights activist Malcolm X and journalist Alex Haley. Haley coauthored the autobiography based on a series of in-depth interviews he conducted between 1963 and Malcolm X’s 1965 assassination. The Autobiography is a spiritual conversion narrative that outlines Malcolm X’s philosophy of black pride, black nationalism, and pan-Africanism. After the leader was killed, Haley wrote the book’s epilogue. He described their collaborative process and the events at the end of Malcolm X’s life.

 

While Malcolm X and scholars contemporary to the book’s publication regarded Haley as the book’s ghostwriter, modern scholars tend to regard him as an essential collaborator. They say he intentionally muted his authorial voice to create the effect of Malcolm X speaking directly to readers. Haley influenced some of Malcolm X’s literary choices. For example, Malcolm X left the Nation of Islam during the period when he was working on the book with Haley. Rather than rewriting earlier chapters as a polemic against the Nation which Malcolm X had rejected, Haley persuaded him to favor a style of “suspense and drama.” Haley’s proactive censorship of the manuscript’s antisemitic material significantly influenced the ideological tone of the Autobiography.

 

When the Autobiography was published, the New York Times reviewer described it as a “brilliant, painful, important book”. In 1967, historian John William Ward wrote that it would become a classic American autobiography. In 1998, Time named The Autobiography of Malcolm X as one of ten “required reading” nonfiction books. James Baldwin and Arnold Perl adapted the book as a film; their screenplay provided the source material for Spike Lee‘s 1992 film Malcolm X.

 

The Autobiography of Malcolm X
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First edition
Author Malcolm X withAlex Haley
Country United States
Genre Autobiography
Published 1965 (Grove Press)
Media type Print
OCLC 219493184

 

Summary

The Autobiography of Malcolm X is an account of the life of Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little (1925–1965), who became a human rights activist. Beginning with his mother’s pregnancy, the book describes Little’s childhood in Michigan, the death of his father under questionable circumstances, and his mother’s deteriorating mental health that resulted in her commitment to a psychiatric hospital. Little’s young adulthood in Boston and New York City is covered, as well as his involvement in organized crime. This led to his arrest and subsequent eight- to ten-year prison sentence, of which he served six-and-a-half years (1946–1952). The book addresses his ministry with Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam (1952–1963) and his emergence as the organization’s national spokesman. It documents his disillusionment with and departure from the Nation of Islam in March 1964, his conversion to orthodox Sunni Islam, his pilgrimage to Mecca, and his travels in Africa. Malcolm X was assassinated in New York’s Audubon Ballroom in February 1965, before they finished the book. His co-author, journalist Alex Haley, summarizes the last days of Malcolm X’s life, and describes in detail their working agreement, including Haley’s personal views on his subject, in the Autobiography’s epilogue.

 

Leaving the Nation of Islam

On December 1, 1963, when he was asked for a comment about the assassination of President Kennedy, Malcolm X said that it was a case of “chickens coming home to roost“. He added that “chickens coming home to roost never did make me sad; they’ve always made me glad.” The New York Times wrote, “in further criticism of Mr. Kennedy, the Muslim leader cited the murders of Patrice Lumumba, Congo leader, of Medgar Evers, civil rights leader, and of the Negro girls bombed earlier this year in a Birmingham church. These, he said, were instances of other ‘chickens coming home to roost’.” The remarks prompted a widespread public outcry. The Nation of Islam, which had sent a message of condolence to the Kennedy family and ordered its ministers not to comment on the assassination, publicly censured their former shining star. Although Malcolm X retained his post and rank as minister, he was prohibited from public speaking for 90 days.

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Another source of tension had appeared between Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad. There were rumors that Muhammad was conducting extramarital affairs with young Nation secretaries—​which would constitute a serious violation of Nation teachings. After first discounting the rumors, Malcolm X came to believe them after he spoke with Muhammad’s son Wallace and with the women making the accusations. Muhammad confirmed the rumors in 1963, attempting to justify his behavior by referring to precedents set by Biblical prophets.

 

Malcolm X had by now become a media favorite, and some Nation members were seeing him as a threat to Muhammad’s leadership. Publishers had shown interest in Malcolm X’s autobiography, and when Louis Lomax wrote his 1963 book about the Nation, When the Word Is Given, he used a photograph of Malcolm X on the cover and reproduced five of his speeches, but featured only one of Muhammad’s—​all of which greatly upset Muhammad and made him envious.

 

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 Malcolm X’s only meeting with Martin Luther King, Jr., March 26, 1964

 

On March 8, 1964, Malcolm X publicly announced his break from the Nation of Islam. He was still a Muslim, he said, but felt that the Nation had “gone as far as it can” because of its rigid teachings. He planned to organize a black nationalist organization to “heighten the political consciousness” of African Americans; he also expressed a desire to work with other civil rights leaders, saying that Elijah Muhammad had prevented him from doing so in the past.

 

Becoming a Sunni Muslim

At this time, several Sunni Muslims encouraged Malcolm X to learn about their faith, and soon he became a convert to Sunni Islam.

 

Pilgrimage to Mecca

A 38-year-old man with a goatee

 Malcolm X in 1964

In April 1964, with financial help from his half-sister Ella Little-Collins, Malcolm X flew to Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as the start of his Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca obligatory for every Muslim who is able to do so. However, he was delayed in Jeddah when his U.S. citizenship and inability to speak Arabic caused his status as a Muslim to be questioned. He had received Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam‘s book The Eternal Message of Muhammad with his visa approval, and now he contacted the author. Azzam’s son arranged for his release and lent him his personal hotel suite. The next morning he learned that Prince Faisal had designated him a state guest, and several days later, after completing the Hajj rituals, Malcolm X had an audience with the prince.

 

Malcolm X later said that seeing Muslims of “all colors, from blue-eyed blonds to black-skinned Africans” interacting as equals led him to see Islam as a means by which racial problems could be overcome.

 

Africa

Malcolm X had already visited the United Arab Republic, Sudan, Nigeria, and Ghana in 1959 to make arrangements for a tour of Africa by Elijah Muhammad, and after his journey to Mecca, in 1964, he visited Africa a second time. He returned to the United States in late May and flew to Africa again in July. During these visits he met officials, gave interviews, and spoke on radio and television in Egypt, Ethiopia, Tanganyika, Nigeria, Ghana, Guinea, Sudan, Senegal, Liberia, Algeria, and Morocco. In Cairo, he attended the second meeting of the Organization of African Unity as a representative of the Organization of Afro-American Unity. By the end of this third visit he had met with essentially all of Africa’s prominent leaders, and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, and Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria had all invited Malcolm X to serve in their governments. After he spoke at the University of Ibadan, the Nigerian Muslim Students Association bestowed on him the honorary Yoruba name Omowale (“the son who has come home”). He later called this his most treasured honor.

 

France and United Kingdom

On November 23, 1964, on his way home from Africa, Malcolm X stopped in Paris, where he spoke at the Salle de la Mutualité. A week later, on November 30, Malcolm X flew to the United Kingdom, and on December 3 took part in a debate at the Oxford Union Society. The motion was: “Extremism in the Defense of Liberty is No Vice; Moderation in the Pursuit of Justice is No Virtue”. Malcolm X argued for the affirmative, and interest in the debate was so high that it was televised nationally by the BBC.

 

On February 5, 1965, Malcolm X flew to Britain again, and on February 8 he addressed the first meeting of the Council of African Organizations in London. The next day he tried to travel to France, but was refused entry.

 

On February 12, he visited Smethwick, near Birmingham, where the Conservative Party had won the parliamentary seat in the 1964 general election. The town had become a byword for racial division after Conservative supporters used the slogan “If you want a nigger for your neighbour, vote Labour.” In Smethwick he compared the treatment of colored residents with the treatment of Jews under Hitler, saying: “I would not wait for the fascist element in Smethwick to erect gas ovens.”

 

Return to United States

After leaving the Nation of Islam and traveling internationally, Malcolm X addressed a wide variety of audiences in the United States. He spoke regularly at meetings held by Muslim Mosque, Inc., and the Organization of Afro-American Unity, and was one of the most sought-after speakers on college campuses.[137] One of his top aides later wrote that he “welcomed every opportunity to speak to college students.” He also addressed public meetings of the Socialist Workers Party, speaking at their Militant Labor Forum.

Malcolm X Boulevard in New York City

Malcolm X Boulevard in New York City

Philosophy

Except for his autobiography, Malcolm X left no published writings. His philosophy is known almost entirely from the many speeches and interviews he gave from 1952 until his death.[205] Many of those speeches, especially from the last year of his life, were recorded and have been published.

 

Beliefs of the Nation of Islam

Before he left the Nation of Islam in 1964, Malcolm X taught its beliefs. His speeches were peppered with the phrase “The Honorable Elijah Muhammad teaches us that…”. It is virtually impossible to discern whether Malcolm X’s personal beliefs at the time diverged from the teachings of the Nation of Islam. He later compared himself to a ventriloquist’s dummy who could only say what Elijah Muhammad told him.

 

Malcolm X taught that black people were the original people of the world, and that white people were a race of devils who were created by an evil scientist named Yakub. The Nation of Islam believed that black people were superior to white people, and that the demise of the white race was imminent. When questioned concerning his statements that white people were devils, Malcolm X said: “history proves the white man is a devil.” “Anybody who rapes, and plunders, and enslaves, and steals, and drops hell bombs on people… anybody who does these things is nothing but a devil.”

 

Malcolm X said that Islam was the “true religion of black mankind” and that Christianity was “the white man’s religion” that had been imposed upon African Americans by their slave-masters. He said that the Nation of Islam followed Islam as it was practiced around the world, but the Nation’s teachings varied from those of other Muslims because they were adapted to the “uniquely pitiful” condition of black people in America. He taught that Wallace Fard Muhammad, the founder of the Nation, was Allah incarnate, and that Elijah Muhammad was his Messenger, or Prophet.

 

While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation, Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of blacks from whites. The Nation of Islam proposed the establishment of a separate country for African Americans in the southern or southwestern United States as an interim measure until African Americans could return to Africa. Malcolm X suggested the United States government owed reparations to black people for the unpaid labor of their ancestors. He also rejected the civil rights movement’s strategy of nonviolence, instead advocating that black people should defend themselves

 

Independent views

After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X announced his willingness to work with leaders of the civil rights movement, though he advocated some changes to their policies. He felt that calling the movement a struggle for civil rights would keep the issue within the United States, while changing the focus to human rights would make it an international concern. The movement could then bring its complaints before the United Nations, where Malcolm X said the emerging nations of the world would add their support.

 

Malcolm X argued that if the government was unwilling or unable to protect black people, they should protect themselves, and said that he and the other members of the Organization of Afro-American Unity were determined to defend themselves from aggressors, and to secure freedom, justice and equality “by whatever means necessary”.

 

Malcolm X stressed the global perspective he gained from his international travels. He emphasized the “direct connection” between the domestic struggle of African Americans for equal rights with the independence struggles of Third World nations. He said that African Americans were wrong when they thought of themselves as a minority; globally, black people were the majority.

 

In his speeches at the Militant Labor Forum, which was sponsored by the Socialist Workers Party, Malcolm X criticized capitalism. After one such speech, when he was asked what political and economic system he wanted, he said he didn’t know, but that it was no coincidence the newly independent countries in the Third World were turning toward socialism. When a reporter asked him what he thought about socialism, Malcolm X asked whether it was good for black people. When the reporter told him it seemed to be, Malcolm X told him, “Then I’m for it.”

 

Although he no longer called for the separation of black people from white people, Malcolm X continued to advocate black nationalism, which he defined as self-determination for the African-American community. In the last months of his life, however, Malcolm X began to reconsider his support for black nationalism after meeting northern African revolutionaries who, to all appearances, were white.

 

After his Hajj, Malcolm X articulated a view of white people and racism that represented a deep change from the philosophy he had supported as a minister of the Nation of Islam. In a famous letter from Mecca, he wrote that his experiences with white people during his pilgrimage convinced him to “rearrange” his thinking about race and “toss aside some of [his] previous conclusions”. In a conversation with Gordon Parks, two days before his assassination, Malcolm said:

 

Listening to leaders like Nasser, Ben Bella, and Nkrumah awakened me to the dangers of racism. I realized racism isn’t just a black and white problem. It’s brought bloodbaths to about every nation on earth at one time or another.
Brother, remember the time that white college girl came into the restaurant—​the one who wanted to help the [Black] Muslims and the whites get together—​and I told her there wasn’t a ghost of a chance and she went away crying? Well, I’ve lived to regret that incident. In many parts of the African continent I saw white students helping black people. Something like this kills a lot of argument. I did many things as a Black Muslim that I’m sorry for now. I was a zombie then—​like all [Black] Muslims—​I was hypnotized, pointed in a certain direction and told to march. Well, I guess a man’s entitled to make a fool of himself if he’s ready to pay the cost. It cost me 12 years.
That was a bad scene, brother. The sickness and madness of those days—​I’m glad to be free of them.

Up until one week before his death, Malcolm X continued to publicly advocate that black people should achieve advancement “by any means necessary”.

 

Mural on the wall of row houses in Philadelphia

Mural on the wall of row houses in Philadelphia

Legacy

Malcolm X has been described as one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history. He is credited with raising the self-esteem of black Americans and reconnecting them with their African heritage. He is largely responsible for the spread of Islam in the black community in the United States. Many African Americans, especially those who lived in cities in the Northern and Western United States, felt that Malcolm X articulated their complaints concerning inequality better than the mainstream civil rights movement did. One biographer says that by giving expression to their frustration, Malcolm X “made clear the price that white America would have to pay if it did not accede to black America’s legitimate demands.”

 

In the late 1960s, increasingly radical black activists based their movements largely on Malcolm X and his teachings. The Black Power movement, the Black Arts Movement, and the widespread adoption of the slogan “Black is beautiful” can all trace their roots to Malcolm X.

 

In 1963 Malcolm X began a collaboration with Alex Haley on his life story, The Autobiography of Malcolm X. He told Haley, “If I’m alive when this book comes out, it will be a miracle”, and indeed, Haley completed and published it some months after the assassination.

 

During the late 1980s and early 1990s, there was a resurgence of interest in his life among young people. Hip-hop groups such as Public Enemy adopted Malcolm X as an icon, and his image was displayed in hundreds of thousands of homes, offices, and schools as well as on T-shirts and jackets. This wave peaked in 1992 with the release of the film Malcolm X, an adaptation of The Autobiography of Malcolm X.

 

In 1998 TIME named The Autobiography of Malcolm X one of the ten most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century.

 

Malcolm X Assassin – Pt. 1

 

 

Malcolm X Assassin – Pt. 2

 

 

Malcolm X Assassin – Pt. 3

 

 

WHO KILLED MALCOLM X?

 

 

MALCOLM X: WHY I LEFT THE NATION OF ISLAM

 

 

MALCOLM X: WE DIDN’T LAND ON PLYMOUTH ROCK

 

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Darren Wilson resigns


Originally posted on theGrio:

FERGUSON, Mo. (AP) — The white police officer who killed Michael Brown has resigned from the Ferguson Police Department, his attorney said Saturday, nearly four months after the fatal confrontation with the black 18-year-old that fueled protests in the St. Louis suburb and across the nation.

Darren Wilson, 28, has been on administrative leave since the shooting on Aug. 9. His resignation was announced Saturday by one of his attorneys, Neil Bruntrager. The resignation is effective immediately, Bruntrager said.

A grand jury spent more than three months reviewing evidence in the case before declining in November to issue any charges against Wilson. He told jurors that he feared for his life when Brown hit him and reached for his gun.

The U.S. Justice Department is still conducting a civil rights investigation into the shooting and a separate probe of police department practices.

The shooting struck up a national debate…

View original 170 more words

When Media Bids For An Assassins ( Darren Wilson) Lies.


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ABC News and George Stephanopoulos paid Darren Wilson Mid-to-High’ Six Figures For Interview. To Lie.

ABC News and George Stephanopoulos paid Darren Wilson Mid-to-High’ Six Figures For Interview. To Lie.

ABC Paid ‘Mid-to-High’ Six Figures For #DarrenWilson Interview

BY   For GOTNEWS

 

A NBC source with knowledge of the #DarrenWilson interview talks said that ABC offered to pay “mid-to-high” six figures for the interview.

 

The source did not say an exact figure because NBC stopped bidding for it after ABC upped the ante.

 

The taped interview was shot on Tuesday. Clinton operative-turned ABC News host George Stephanopoulos will do the interview.

 

The choice for Stephanopoulos is curious given that Missouri Governor Jay Nixon was once touted as a potential running mate to Hillary Clinton.

 

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ABC Violated Its Own Rules When It Paid For #DarrenWilson Interview

ABC News appears to have violated its own rules when it paid for Darren Wilson’s interview, Gotnews.com has learned.

 

In an interview with the Plain Dealer, Jeffrey W. Schneider, ABC News’ senior vice president for communications, said that the network doesn’t pay for interviews.

 

But ABC, like the other networks, says it won’t pay for exclusive interviews, known as checkbook journalism. Jeffrey W. Schneider, ABC News’ senior vice president for communications, confirmed the network’s policy of not compensating for interviews. (Mark Dawidziak, “Network reporters race to reach Cleveland, story,” Plain Dealer, May 8, 2013).

 

Darren Wilson today, just like George Zimmerman in 2012, doesn’t understand this is not a legal case – it’s a political case using the legal system….

 

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I refuse to show the entire Darren Wilson interview, find that garbage on your own if you want to see a circus of lies, this is good enough for witnessing lies and misinformation.

 

Darren Wilson defends shooting Michael Brown

 

How Much Did ABC Pay for the Darren Wilson Interview?

 

Figures are starting to pop up on Twitter. One I saw placed the number in the “mid to high six figures.” Even if that’s probably high (I don’t know, is it?), even if he was in the mid-to-high five figures, it strikes me as utterly reprehensible. ABC news is essentially paying this guy tens if not hundreds of thousands of dollars?

 

He killed a young man. I say murdered, but we must at least admit that he is being paid for having been the one who killed this young man.

 

This is beyond what I will accept from a news organization at this point. I have had well and truly enough. Not only should ABC News be boycotted forever, but they should be actively protested at every opportunity.

 

Stephanopoulos is horrible, and his organization is total garbage. Wilson, meanwhile is benefiting to the tune of tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars, and that’s above whatever his asinine followers contributed to his virtually unneeded “legal defense fund” (the citizens of St. Louis County got to pay for his legal defense and his prosecution all in one paycheck!).

 

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George Stephanopoulos’ Darren Wilson Interview Speaks Volumes About ABC News

George Stephanopoulos’ interview with Darren Wilson – the police officer who killed African-American teenager Michael Brown – tells us a lot more about ABC News than it does about what actually happened that day in Ferguson, Mo.

 

Wilson’s account of events was hardly unexpected. He sounded like someone who had been well coached by attorneys, both in regard to potential criminal charges and a possible wrongful-death civil lawsuit. Stephanopoulos mischaracterized his demeanor as “very clinical,” when the better description would be “very lawyered up,” which is strictly an observation, not a criticism.

 

ABC, by contrast, approached its coup of landing the first sit-down chat with Wilson in an unorthodox way, or at least one that says a great deal about the network’s priorities, which have been crystal clear since Stephanopoulos – as host of “Good Morning America” – was designated the principal breaking-news and big-event anchor, putting him a rung above “World News’” David Muir within the ABC News hierarchy.

 

Thank you  Got News for your contributions to this post.

 

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Darren Wilson received over $400,000 from donations through GOFUNDME before that was shut down due to outraged protest. The donations were said to be for legal fees and living expenses.

 

Darren Wilson was and is employed by the Ferguson PD, which has a police union that provides legal defense of all it’s officers, including those who murder unarmed Black teens. No legal defense fund was necessary.

 

Darren Wilson was and is employed by the Ferguson PD and was on “paid” administrative leave from August 9th until November 24th, the entire 107 days. He received his salary, so no living expenses were necessary.

 

My question is this, if he didn’t need donations for living expenses since he was being paid, and if he didn’t need a legal fund since police union provided him with a lawyer, which he never had a need for, why is Darren Wilson allowed to keep close to $500,000, or $400,000 (depending on whom you believe) in donations? Is that fraud?

 

Why is a killer allowed to reap benefits from killing? Civil Trial People.

 

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Black Genocide: The Roll Call


itisme

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The unknown number of people killed in police-involved shootings each year, as FiveThirtyEight reports:

 

Efforts to keep track of “justifiable police homicides” are beset by systemic problems. “Nobody that knows anything about the SHR puts credence in the numbers that they call ‘justifiable homicides,’” when used as a proxy for police killings, said David Klinger, an associate professor of criminology and criminal justice at the University of Missouri who specializes in policing and the use of deadly force. And there’s no governmental effort at all to record the number of unjustifiable homicides by police. If Brown’s homicide is found to be unjustifiable, it won’t show up in these statistics.

 

4%

The percentage of American law enforcement agencies that report any police-involved shootings to the FBI’s database — 700 out of a total of 17,000,according to USA Today. These agencies only record so-called “justifiable homicides,” or incidents in which an armed suspect was shot by police. All in all, we’re left with a reporting system that tells us very little about how many people are killed by police, and nothing about those killed in an unjust fashion

 

 

In a short but powerful segment, Melissa Harris-Perry connected the recent police killing of Michael Brown to the deaths of other black men at the hands of police — and to America’s history of injustice towards black people.

 

Harris-Perry read the names of some of the hundreds of men who were killed by police across the country “in the past decade alone,” from Sean Bell to Oscar Grant to Eric Garner to Brown. All of the men she mentioned were unarmed at the time of their death.

 

In the past decade alone, these men and hundreds of others have lost their lives to police.

 

“From 2006 to 2012 a white police officer killed a black person at least twice a week in this country,” she said.

 

She then noted that Ferguson, where Brown was shot dead, is close to the place from which the slave Dred Scott waged a legal battle for his freedom. She quoted from the notorious Supreme Court case which rejected Scott’s claim because, in the infamous words of Chief Justice Roger Taney, he had “no rights which the white man was bound to respect.”

 

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Harris-Perry repeated that last phrase over and over again, as images of police in Ferguson flashed behind her.

Melissa Harris-Perry: The deaths of black men in America

Published on Aug 18, 2014

https://www.facebook.com/Powerfulblac…

POWERFUL! Melissa talks about the deaths of black men that have occurred at the hands of police in the past decade.

 

 

The Black Genocide Roll Call. Includes ALL People Of Color.

ALL were UNARMRED. The List Is Incomplete.

 

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Tamir Rice

Akai Gurley 

Cameron Tillman

VonDerrit Myers Jr.

Levar Jones

Laquan McDonald

Carey Smith-Viramontes

Jeffrey Holden

Qusean Whitten

Miguel Benton

Dillon McGee

Levi Weaver

Karen Cifuentes

Sergio Ramos

Roshad McIntosh

Diana Showman

Miriam Carey

Michelle Cusseaux

Clinton Allen

Kajieme Powell

John Crawford

Eric Garner

Ezell Ford

Kajieme Powell

Dante Parker

Dillon Taylor

Andrew Scott Gaynier

Omar Abrego

Jacinto Zavala

Joshua Paul

Kody Roach

Joseph Jennings

Guillermo Canas

Marlon Horton

Would you like more……..

KENDREC MCDADE

TIMOTHY RUSSELL

ERVIN JEFFERSON

AMADOU DIALLO

PATRICK DORISMOND

OUSMANE ZONGO

TIMOTHY STANSBURY JR.

SEAN BELL

ORLANDO BARLOW

AARON CAMPBELL

VICTOR STEEN

STEVEN EUGENE WASHINGTON

ALONZO ASHLEY

WENDELL ALLEN

RONALDMADISON

 JAMES BRISSETTE

TRAVARES MCGILL

RAMARLEY GRAHAM

OSCAR GRANT

KIMANI GRAY

I am 100% certain I have missed many, can’t find a comprehensive list of the Black people gunned down by AmeriKKKan Law Enforcement because there are no comprehensive records kept.

 

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If we want to know how many Justifiable Homicides occur by Police or Private Citizens we can get those number easily.  This is them.

 

Justifiable Homicides:
Year     Police      Citizen
2007   398       252
2008   378       265
2009   414       266
2010   397       285
2011   393       260
2012   409       330

 

But if we want to know how many Law Enforcement Shootings are “Unjustified” – we get no answer from the FBI.  None.

 

One source, in a report called “Operation Ghetto Storm” says that in 2012 that of the 739 “Justified” shootings shown above from 2012, 313 of them were Black.  44% of them or 136, were unarmed. 27% of them (83) were claimed by Law Enforcement to have Gun at the time of the shooting, but that could not be later confirmed or the “gun” was in fact, a toy or other non-lethal object. 20% of them (62) were confirmed to have been armed with a gun, knife or cutting tool.

 

91% of the people killed by Police in Chicago in 2012 were Black. 87% in New York. 100% in Saginaw and Rockford.  I gotta admit even after focusing on this subject for over 30 years, since Ron Settles was killed, I find that kind of shocking.  

 

The report goes on to say that 47% of these killings (146 cases) occurred not because of the person brandishing a weapon (as noted above less then 30% of them HAD a weapon, or were even thought to have a weapon), it’s because the Officer or Citizen – “felt threatened” and were in “fear”.  In only 8% (25 cases) did the suspect fire or discharge a weapon that wounded or killed Police or others while Officers were on the scene.

 

Only eight (8) Officers were Charged with Murder, Manslaughter or use of excessive force in these case.

 

Is this report comprehensive? Is it fully accurate? I don’t know, it’s gone through several revisions and updates as none of the data is being officially compiled anywhere and some things can be missed that way.

 

This summer ColorLines and The Chicago Reporter conducted a joint national investigation of fatal police shootings in America’s 10 largest cities, each of which had more than 1 million people in 2000. Several striking findings emerged.

 

To begin, African Americans were overrepresented among police shooting victims in every city the publications investigated.

 

The contrast was particularly noticeable in New York, San Diego and Las Vegas. In each of these cities, the percentage of black people killed by police was at least double that of their share of the city’s total population.

 

They analyzed the data from the Ten Largest Cities and in Every City – every single one – had double the number of black shooting victims than their proportion in the population.

 

And it’s not just happening to Black People.

 

Starting in 2001, the number of incidents in which Latinos were killed by police in cities with more than 250,000 people rose four consecutive years, from 19 in 2001 to 26 in 2005. The problem was exceptionally acute in Phoenix, which had the highest number of Latinos killed in the country.

 

Despite these persistent problems of disproportionate police force in communities of color,a disturbing lack of accountability plagues several of the cities examined.

 

In Chicago, for example, an examination of media accounts shows that only one shooting out of the 84 fatal police shootings occurred since 2000 has been found unjustified. Monique Bond, spokeswoman at the Chicago Police Department, said that more than one shooting had been determined to have been outside department guidelines, but could not provide specific numbers.

 

Melissa Harris-Perry ‘This Country Is No Place For Young Black Men’

 

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Black Genocide: Honoring Those We Lost To Senseless Violence.


itisme

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Black genocide

We Charge Genocide: The Crime of Government Against the Negro People” is a document accusing the United States government of genocide according to the UN Genocide Convention. This document was created by the Civil Rights Congress (CRC) and presented to the United Nations in December 1951.

 

The document pointed out that the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide defined genocide as any acts committed with “intent to destroy” a group, “in whole or in part.” To build its case for black genocide the document cited many instances of lynching in the United States, as well as legal discrimination, a series of incidents of police brutality dating to the present, and systematic inequalities in health and quality of life. The central argument: the US government is both complicit with and responsible for a genocidal situation based on the UN’s own definition of genocide.

 

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From The:

Malcolm X Grassroots Movement

 

The Black Nation Charges Genocide! Our survival is dependent on Self-Defense!

 

The Black Nation Charges Genocide! Our survival is dependant on Self-Defense!

 

Mike Brown, Ezell Ford and Eric Garner are among the latest victims of the ongoing genocide of Black People in the United States of America. Every 28 hours in the United States law enforcement, vigilantes, or security guards extra-judiciously murder a Black person. It is imperative that we as a people act upon every tragedy and hardship inflicted upon us by the government and the corporations to address the systematic genocide of our people in a protracted, programmatic, and strategic way.

 

The United States of America, as both a state and a criminal enterprise, has proven time and time again throughout its entire 238-year history that where Black people are concerned, genocide is the order of the day. The mass extrajudicial killings of Blacks aren’t just the result of rogue police officers and crazed racist vigilantes; it is a state sponsored program of containment designed to keep the Black nation in a position of subservience and subjugation to the White settler colonial nation.

 

The United States Government and the vast reactionary sector of the settler colonial nation who’s interests it was designed to represent, has been engaged in a war on Afrikan people from the time of its inception to the present day. The United States Government continues to lose legitimacy through its actions against our people. Through its refusal to address the ongoing human rights violations against the Black Nation the United States has shown itself to be the perpetual facilitator of the suffering of the Black Nation.

 

We cannot and should not count on our enemies – like the courts, and other forces of the US government or transnational corporations – to protect us. We have to protect ourselves. Justice for Mike Brown, Ezell Ford, Eric Garner or any of the hundreds of other Black women, men and children extra-judiciously executed by vigilantes, security guards and police every year will never be found in the courtrooms of the United States. Marissa Alexander is potentially facing decades in prison for firing a warning shot to defend herself and her children against an abusive partner while George Zimmerman is walking free after murdering Trayvon Martin in cold blood. Even in cases where the verdict apparently is in favor of our people, like in the conviction of Theodore Wafer for the murder of Renisha McBride, these sorts of trials uphold the status quo by not addressing the root issues behind the oppression of our people in a systematic way. The United States Government does not even have the right to try these cases because it is the primary architect of the state of emergency and continuous crisis the Black Nation is forced to endure. We cannot afford to be distracted from the work that must be done to insure the survival of our people.

 

The rebellion our people are waging in Ferguson must be supported. But, spontaneous rebellions are not enough. The only way we are going to successfully defend ourselves from genocide is to build a massive social movement with self-determination and self defense as its central unifying principles. We need a coordinated movement that strategically takes on the systemic oppression and exploitation that prevent Black people from exercising self-determination and human rights.  We have to defend ourselves if we want to survive.

 

We call on people around the country to support The Organization For Black Struggle based out of St. Louis, Missouri in their efforts to secure the resources to hire a full time organizer. They have been working since 1980 to fill the vacuum left by assaults on the Black Power Movement and have been providing critical leadership in support of the people’s struggle. To connect with The Organization For Black Struggle visit http://obs-onthemove.org/.

 

The Malcolm X Grassroots Movement (MXGM) believes that an essential part of our Movement for survival must be Self-Defense Networks.

 

We think there are two types of Networks that we have to build:

 

 

New Afrikan or Black Self-Defense Networks are alliances, coalitions, or united fronts of Black organizations whose purpose is to defend the New Afrikan or Black community from external (the police, FBI, white terrorist organizations, etc.) and internal (agent infiltration, intra-communal violence, etc.) threats to its safety and security.

 

People’s Self-Defense Networks are multi-national (or multi-ethnic and/or racial) alliances, coalitions, or united fronts whose purpose is to defend their communities against mutual enemies and threats and advance a common agenda based on shared interests, hopes, and aspirations.

 

Oppressed peoples and communities can and will only be secure in this country when they are organized to defend themselves against the aggressions of the government and the forces of white supremacy and capitalist exploitation.

 

The Every 28 Hours Campaign proposes a model for organizing:

 

  1. The formation of Black Self-Defense Networks to defend our people and combat police terrorism. These Networks should seek to build Copwatch programs, engage in mass rights based education trainings for the community, serve as first responders to acts of Police Terrorism, and help coordinate mass resistance to these acts via mass mobilizations and direct action. These Networks should also be encouraged to engage in offensive campaigns, such as referendums to institute Police Control Boards.

 

  1. The formation of People’s Self-Defense Networks to defend the lives and interests of all oppressed peoples’ and exploited classes against various forms of state terrorism. These People’s Self-Defense Networks would work as multi-national alliances to engage in a broad manner all of the tasks mentioned above to defend oppressed peoples and targeted communities, such as LGBTQ2GNC communities, against institutionalized racism, white supremacy, institutionalized sexism, patriarchy and state repression be it racial profiling, gender profiling, stop and frisk, mass incarceration, or mass deportations.

 

  1. Waging campaigns for local referendums to institute Police Control mechanisms – i.e. community based structures that have the power to hire, fire, subpoena, and discipline the police on the local level. And waging massive, non-compliant campaigns of resistance employing BDS (boycott, divestment, and sanction) strategies and tactics on statewide, regional, and national levels.

 

  1. Forming People’s Assemblies, on local, citywide, and regional levels to engage in program and demand development initiatives that will enable the people to engage in the broad implementation of people’s programs for self-defense and mutual aid.

 

The Malcolm X Grassroots Movement (MXGM) and the Every 28 Hours Campaign seeks to strengthen organizing initiatives within Black or New Afrikan communities for self-defense, by presenting these initiatives with a comprehensive analytical framework and practical organizing tools to ground and unite them.

 

MXGM offers to Black and other oppressed communities three resources

1) Operation Ghetto Storm, a full report on the 2012 extra judicial killings;

2) Let Your Motto Be Resistance, an organizing handbook for self-defense; and 3) We Charge Genocide Again!, a curriculum for the Every 28 Hours Campaign, to further this objective

 

Links:

 

Operation Ghetto Storm: 2012 Annual Report on the Extrajudicial Killing of Black People

http://mxgm.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Operation-Ghetto-Storm.pdf

 

 

Let Your Motto Be Resistance

http://mxgm.org/let-your-motto-be-resistance-a-handbook-on-organizing-new-afrikan-and-oppressed-communities-for-self-defense/

 

 

We Charge Genocide Again!

http://mxgm.org/we-charge-genocide-again-new-curriculum-on-every-28-hours-report/

 

 

For more information on these resources or trainings please contact Taliba Obuya at taliba@mxgm.org

 

For coalition building and Self-Defense Networks please contact Watani Tyehimba at watani@mxgm.org.

 

Malcolm X – The House Negro and the Field Negro

 

Published on Feb 29, 2012

The House Negro and the Field Negro, speech by the great Malcolm X, after the March on Washington (1963). Malcolm X was still in the Nation of Islam.

 

 

 

Malcolm X: “Negro and the American Promise.”

 

Published on Apr 21, 2013

June 24th 1963. Dr. Kenneth Clark conducts probing interviews of N.O.I. leader Malcolm X, SCLC leader Martin Luther & Playwright James Baldwin in the hour long special examining the racial crisis in America. Dr. Clark and his wife fellow psychologist Mamie Phipps Clark, used dolls in their 1939 psychological experiment to gauge ego and self esteem in young Black American children. Black children identified with the Black dolls, but children of either race tended to view the White dolls favorably and the Black dolls unfavorably. The study concluded the Black American children internalize society’s negative stereotypes of Black Americans, Dr.Clark: “Two out of three African American children rejected the brown dolls.” Clark’s results were published in a 1950 paper, “Effects of Prejudice and Discrimination on Personality Development.” The Clarks paper on the “doll tests” was cited by the US Supreme Court in its landmark 1954 ruling, Brown v. Board of Education

 

 

 

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The Black Genocide Continues:

 

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Jordan Davis’ parents asked prosecutors not to seek the death penalty in Dunn trial

 

Michael Dunn won’t face death in his Friday sentencing and that will not bother Jordan Davis’ parents. They never wanted the state to execute Dunn.

 

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Justice 4 #JordanDavis: #MichaelDunn Sentenced to Life In Prison NO Parole. plus 105 years for lesser charges. Justice has been served. One down, So many more to go.

 

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