The Last 24™


Jueseppi B. AKA...  Mr MilitantNegro™

Jueseppi B. AKA…
Mr MilitantNegro™

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President Obama Speaks at a Hanukkah Reception

 

 

Mumia Abu Jamal Why We Can’t Breathe

 

 

Was Key Grand Jury Witness in Michael Brown Case a Racist, Mentally Ill, Lying Ex-Felon?

 

 

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Charting a New Course on Cuba

President Obama just announced historic steps to chart a new course in our relations with Cuba, and to further engage and empower the Cuban people.

 

Castro thanks Obama, Pope in address

 

 

Lawmakers Praise Obama Move on Cuba Relations

 

 

Report: Cuba releases imprisoned American

 

 

President Obama Delivers a Statement on Cuba

 

 

Assata_Shakur

Will Cuba extradite Assata Shakur to the US?

 

From The Grio &  

What’s next for Assata Shakur? With Havana’s humanitarian release of American Alan Gross—A USAID worker who had been imprisoned in Cuba for five years on accusations of espionage—President Obama announced a resumption in relations between the two countries after 53 years.

 

“Neither the American nor the Cuban people are well-served by a rigid policy that’s rooted in events that took place before most of us were born,” Obama said Wednesday in his White House speech. “It’s time for a new approach.”

 

In exchange for the Gross’s release, the U.S. released the three remaining members of the “Cuban Five,” Cuban citizens who were convicted of spying in Miami in 2001.  Cuba also released 53 political prisoners, and a valuable U.S. spy who is a Cuban native.

 

The news from the president was dramatic and a game changer, thanks in part to an assist from Pope Francis, the first Latin American pope.  But now that U.S.-Cuba relations have thawed, with a road to normalization and a U.S. embassy in Havana at some point in the near future, what does that mean for Assata Shakur?  Will she be extradited to the U.S. and forced back to prison?

 

Assata Shakur, 67, also known as JoAnne Chesimard, was a member of the Black Panther Party and the Black Liberation Army.  She became a member of the Black Power movement, at a time when many activists were galvanized following the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King.

 

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In 1973, Shakur was arrested during a traffic stop on the New Jersey Turnpike.  A shootout left Assata injured with multiple wounds, the driver, Zayd Shakur, dead, and a state trooper dead.  In 1977, after numerous trials, she was convicted of first degree murder of the officer.  And in 1979, Shakur escaped and fled to Cuba, where Fidel Castro granted her asylum.

 

“Assata was falsely charged on numerous occasions in the United States during the early 1970s and vilified by the media,” said scholar and activist Angela Davis in a recent commentary in The Guardian.  Davis added Shakur “was charged with armed robbery, bank robbery, kidnap, murder, and attempted murder of a policeman. Although she faced 10 separate legal proceedings, and had already been pronounced guilty by the media, all except one of these trials – the case resulting from her capture – concluded in acquittal, hung jury, or dismissal.”

 

“Under highly questionable circumstances, she was finally convicted of being an accomplice to the murder of a New Jersey state trooper,” she added.

 

According to the National Lawyers Guild, who represented Shakur in her final trial, the proceedings were plagued with constitutional violations, including an all-white jury of 15 people, including five jurors who had personal connections to state troopers.  A state Assemblyman spoke to jurors while they were sequestered, urging them to convict.

 

“The judge cut funding for additional expert defense testimony after medical testimony demonstrated that Ms. Shakur—who had no gunpowder residues on her fingers, and whose fingerprints were not found on any weapon at the crime scene—was shot with her hands up and suffered injury to a critical nerve in her right arm, making it anatomically impossible for her to fire a weapon,” the Guild said in a statement.

 

Moreover, evidence proved Shakur was targeted and framed by the covert and illegal FBI COINTELPRO program.  The baby of J. Edgar Hoover, COINTELPRO was designed to monitor, infiltrate and destroy social justice movements seen as a threat to national security, including civil rights and antiwar groups, the Black Power movement and the Young Lords.  Some of the stated goals of the program in an FBI memo were to “prevent the coalition of militant black nationalist groups,” to “Prevent the RISE OF A ‘MESSIAH’ who could unify…the militant black nationalist movement,” to “Prevent militant black nationalist groups and leaders from gaining RESPECTABILITY, by discrediting them to…both the responsible community and to liberals who have vestiges of sympathy…,” and to “prevent the long-range GROWTH of militant black organizations, especially among youth.”

 

As a result, black leadership was decimated, either assassinated—as in the case of Dr. King, Malcolm X and Fred Hampton—or thrown in prison with the key thrown away.  Assata Shakur, who fled to Cuba, was the last woman standing, so to speak.  And apparently that is embarrassing to someone in the FBI, so they want to make an example of her as a so-called “domestic terrorist.”  That is why last year, 40 years after the shooting, the FBI made the politically-motivated move of placing Shakur on their Ten Most Wanted Terrorists list, making her the first woman and second U.S. citizen on that list.  If you listen to the FBI, you’d think the ten most dangerous people on Earth are essentially nine Al Qaeda operatives and—Assata Shakur.

 

The FBI and the New Jersey police are offering a $2 million reward for her capture, which the police hope will be more likely with normalization of relations with Cuba.  But would Cuba really extradite Assata Shakur to the U.S.?  Currently, the U.S. and Cuba have no extradition agreement.  But even if they did, Havana, which disagrees with her charges and conviction, would not be obligated to give up Assata.

 

While theGrio made several attempts to contact Lennox S. Hinds, Assata Shakur’s longtime lawyer, he could not be reached for comment.  However, in a 2013 interview on Democracy Now!, Hinds noted the Cuban government granted Assata Shakur political asylum based on a firm grounding in international law, namely the Refugee Convention.  There are precedents for U.S.-friendly nations that have refused to extradite American fugitives who have fled the U.S.

 

“Now, what is the basis for that? It is if an individual has a well-grounded fear that if they return to the country from which they left, they would either be persecuted or prosecuted based upon their political beliefs or/and their race or religion,” Hinds noted.  Hinds elaborated that in the 1970s, Black Panthers hijacked planes and went to France.  France—an American ally which has signed international extradition treaties with the U.S.—conducted its own investigation and concluded the Panthers would be subject to racial and political oppression if they were returned to the States.  So France refused to extradite the Panthers.

 

Meanwhile, as the U.S. removes Cuba from the terrorist list, it needs to remove Shakur from the list as well.  According to the FBI, neither President Obama nor Attorney General Eric Holder were involved in placing Shakur on that list.  Nevertheless, at a time of heightened political consciousness, when black people are railing against racially-motivated police killings and the targeting of African-Americans by the system, the extradition of a black activist who was framed and railroaded would cause an uproar among the black community, putting Obama and the Justice Department in a bad way with a key constituency.

 

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“Today, America chooses to cut loose the shackles of the past, so as to reach for a better future for the Cuban people, for the American people, for our entire hemisphere and for the world,” the president said.  “We can’t keep doing the same thing for five decades and expect a different result.”

 

As President Obama rights old wrongs and casts off anachronistic and failed Cold War policies, the last thing the federal government should want to do is perpetuate the sordid legacy of COINTELPRO, kangaroo trials, and Hoover’s quest to neutralize black activist leadership, including Assata Shakur.

 

During this time of bold decisions coming from the White House, it is better for the president to pardon Assata.

 

Follow David A. Love on Twitter at @davidalove

 

The Grio &  

 

President Obama Speaks at the “Christmas in Washington” Celebration

 

 

The President and First Lady Help Sort Toys for Tots

 

 

The First Lady Previews the 2014 White House Holiday Decorations

 

 

First Lady Michelle Obama Reads “Twas the Night Before Christmas”

 

First Lady Michelle Obama Celebrates the Holidays with the Children’s National Medical Center

 

 

Vice President Biden Speaks at the National Menorah Lighting

 

 

President Obama Delivers Remarks at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst

 

 

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President Obama: “Happy Hanukkah, Everybody!”

 

Judicial Nominations: Accomplishments and the Work That Lies Ahead

 

What They’re Saying: The President’s Action on Cuba Policy

 

Ex-Im Bank: Supporting American Jobs, Protecting American Taxpayers

 

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President Obama Charts a New Course on Cuba: 5 Things to Know

 

The Faces of Health Care: Marjorie F.

 

The Faces of Health Care: Lynnette J.

 

5 Things You Need to Know About Alaska’s Bristol Bay

 

 

The Economy in 2014

 

It's Raining Videos™

It’s Raining Videos™

Senator Warren Asks Senate to Pass “Truth in Settlements” Act

 

 

Elizabeth Warren Slams Dodd-Frank Change | msnbc

 

 

WATCH: Elizabeth Warren Slams Citigroup | msnbc

 

 

FERGUSON GRAND JURY WITNESS #40 IDENTIFIED ( here she is)

 

 

How Dare We Expect Freedom Of Speech! Cleveland Police Demands An Apology

 

The Twitter Storm™

The Twitter Storm™

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Black History Moment: 59 Years Ago Today, Ms. Rosa Parks Refused To Surrender Her Seat On A Montgomery, Alabama Bus. Sparked A Nation.


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Rosa Parks

Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the United States Congress called “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement”. Her birthday, February 4, and the day she was arrested, December 1, have both become Rosa Parks Day, commemorated in both California and Ohio.

 

On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake‘s order that she give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation. Others had taken similar steps, including Irene Morgan in 1946,Sarah Louise Keys in 1955, and the members of the Browder v. Gayle lawsuit (Claudette Colvin, Aurelia Browder, Susie McDonald, and Mary Louise Smith) who were arrested in Montgomery months before Parks.NAACP organizers believed that Parks was the best candidate for seeing through a court challenge after her arrest for civil disobedience in violating Alabama segregation laws, although eventually her case became bogged down in the state courts while the Browder v. Gayle case succeeded.

 

Parks’ act of defiance and the Montgomery Bus Boycott became important symbols of the modern Civil Rights Movement. She became an international icon of resistance to racial segregation. She organized and collaborated with civil rights leaders, including Edgar Nixon, president of the local chapter of the NAACP; and Martin Luther King, Jr., a new minister in town who gained national prominence in the civil rights movement.

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At the time, Parks was secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. She had recently attended the Highlander Folk School, a Tennessee center for training activists for workers’ rights and racial equality. She acted as a private citizen “tired of giving in”. Although widely honored in later years, she also suffered for her act; she was fired from her job as a seamstress in a local department store.

 

Eventually, she moved to Detroit, where she briefly found similar work. From 1965 to 1988 she served as secretary and receptionist to John Conyers, an African-American U.S. Representative. After retirement, Parks wrote her autobiography and lived a largely private life in Detroit. In her final years, she suffered from dementia.

 

Parks received national recognition, including the NAACP’s 1979 Spingarn Medal, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Congressional Gold Medal, and a posthumous statue in the United States Capitol’s National Statuary Hall. Upon her death in 2005, she was the first woman and second non-U.S. government official to lie in honor at the Capitol Rotunda.

 

Rosa Parks Lying in Honor

From October 30-31, 2005, Rosa Parks lay in honor in the Capitol Rotunda. Parks was the first woman to lay in honor in the Capitol Rotunda and the second African-American. Parks is best known as a civil rights pioneer. She died on October 24, 2005, in Detroit, Michigan. Authority for use of the Rotunda granted by Senate Concurrent Resolution 61, 109th Congress, 1st Session, agreed to October 29, 2005.

 

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This official Architect of the Capitol photograph is being made available for educational, scholarly, news or personal purposes (not advertising or any other commercial use). When any of these images is used the photographic credit line should read “Architect of the Capitol.” These images may not be used in any way that would imply endorsement by the Architect of the Capitol or the United States Congress of a product, service or point of view. For more information visit www.aoc.gov.

 

Rosa Parks Statue

On February 27, 2013, a statue of Rosa Parks commissioned by Congress was unveiled in National Statuary Hall in the United States Capitol, approximately 100 years after her birth on February 4, 1913. Rosa Parks, whose arrest in 1955 for refusing to yield her seat on a segregated bus to a white passenger helped ignite the modern American civil rights movement. This bronze statue depicts Parks seated on a rock-like formation of which she seems almost a part, symbolizing her famous refusal to give up her bus seat. The statue is close to nine feet tall including its pedestal. It weighs 600 pounds and its granite pedestal, partially hollowed out inside, weighs 2,100 pounds. The pedestal is made of Raven Black granite and inscribed simply with her name and life dates, “Rosa Parks/1913–2005.” More:go.usa.gov/2xJz

 

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This official Architect of the Capitol photograph is being made available for educational, scholarly, news or personal purposes (not advertising or any other commercial use). When any of these images is used the photographic credit line should read “Architect of the Capitol.” These images may not be used in any way that would imply endorsement by the Architect of the Capitol or the United States Congress of a product, service or point of view. For more information visit www.aoc.gov.

 

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Early years

Rosa Parks was born Rosa Louise McCauley in Tuskegee, Alabama, on February 4, 1913, to Leona (née Edwards), a teacher, and James McCauley, a          carpenter. She was of African ancestry, though one her great-grandfathers was Scots-Irish and one of her great-grandmothers was a slave of Native American descent. She was small as a child and suffered poor health with chronic tonsillitis. When her parents separated, she moved with her mother to Pine Level, just outside the capital of Montgomery. She grew up on a farm with her maternal grandparents, mother, and younger brother Sylvester. They all were members of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), a century-old independent black denomination founded by free blacks in Philadelphia in the early nineteenth century.

 

McCauley attended rural schools until the age of eleven. As a student at the Industrial School for Girls in Montgomery, she took academic and vocational courses. Parks went on to a laboratory school set up by the Alabama State Teachers College for Negroes for secondary education, but dropped out in order to care for her grandmother and later her mother, after they became ill.

 

Around the start of the 20th century, the former Confederate states had passed new constitutions and electoral laws that effectively disfranchised black voters and, in Alabama, many poor white voters as well. Under the white-established Jim Crow laws, passed after Democrats regained control of southern legislatures, racial segregation was imposed in public facilities and retail stores in the South, including public transportation. Bus and train companies enforced seating policies with separate sections for blacks and whites. School bus transportation was unavailable in any form for black schoolchildren in the South, and black education was always underfunded.

 

Parks recalled going to elementary school in Pine Level, where school buses took white students to their new school and black students had to walk to theirs:

 

I’d see the bus pass every day… But to me, that was a way of life; we had no choice but to accept what was the custom. The bus was among the first ways I realized there was a black world and a white world.

 

Although Parks’ autobiography recounts early memories of the kindness of white strangers, she could not ignore the racism of her society. When the Ku Klux Klan marched down the street in front of their house, Parks recalls her grandfather guarding the front door with a shotgun. The Montgomery Industrial School, founded and staffed by white northerners for black children, was burned twice by arsonists. Its faculty was ostracized by the white community.

 

In 1932, Rosa married Raymond Parks, a barber from Montgomery. He was a member of the NAACP, which at the time was collecting money to support the defense of the Scottsboro Boys, a group of black men falsely accused of raping two white women. Rosa took numerous jobs, ranging from domestic worker to hospital aide. At her husband’s urging, she finished her high school studies in 1933, at a time when less than 7% of African Americans had a high school diploma. Despite the Jim Crow laws and discrimination by registrars, she succeeded in registering to vote on her third try.

 

In December 1943, Parks became active in the Civil Rights Movement, joined the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP, and was elected secretary. She later said, “I was the only woman there, and they needed a secretary, and I was too timid to say no.” She continued as secretary until 1957. She worked for the local NAACP leader E.D. Nixon, although he said, “Women don’t need to be nowhere but in the kitchen.” When she asked “Well, what about me?”, he replied “I need a secretary and you are a good one.”

 

In 1944, in her role as secretary, she investigated the gang-rape of Recy Taylor, a black woman from Abbeville, Alabama. Parks and other civil rights activists organized the “Committee for Equal Justice for Mrs. Recy Taylor”, launching what the Chicago Defender called “the strongest campaign for equal justice to be seen in a decade.”

 

Although never a member of the Communist Party she and her husband did attend meetings and the Scottsboro case was a case that had been brought to prominence by the Communist Party.

 

In the 1940s, Parks and her husband were members of the Voters’ League. Sometime soon after 1944, she held a brief job at Maxwell Air Force Base, which, despite its location in Montgomery, Alabama, did not permit racial segregation because it was federal property. She rode on its integrated trolley. Speaking to her biographer, Parks noted, “You might just say Maxwell opened my eyes up.” Parks worked as a housekeeper and seamstress for Clifford and Virginia Durr, a white couple. Politically liberal, the Durrs became her friends. They encouraged—and eventually helped sponsor—Parks in the summer of 1955 to attend the Highlander Folk School, an education center for activism in workers’ rights and racial equality in Monteagle, Tennessee.

 

In August 1955, black teenager Emmett Till was brutally murdered after reportedly flirting with a young white woman while visiting relatives in Mississippi.On November 27, 1955, Rosa Parks attended a mass meeting in Montgomery that addressed this case as well as the recent murders of the activists George W. Lee and Lamar Smith. The featured speaker was T. R. M. Howard, a black civil rights leader from Mississippi who headed the Regional Council of Negro Leadership. The discussions concerned actions blacks could take to work for their rights.

 

Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

 

Montgomery buses: law and prevailing customs

In 1900, Montgomery had passed a city ordinance to segregate bus passengers by race. Conductors were empowered to assign seats to achieve that goal. According to the law, no passenger would be required to move or give up his seat and stand if the bus was crowded and no other seats were available. Over time and by custom, however, Montgomery bus drivers adopted the practice of requiring black riders to move when there were no white-only seats left.

The No. 2857 bus on which Parks was riding before her arrest (a GM "old-look" transit bus, serial number 1132), is now a museum exhibit at the Henry Ford Museum.

The No. 2857 bus on which Parks was riding before her arrest (a GM “old-look” transit bus, serial number 1132), is now a museum exhibit at the Henry Ford Museum.

The first four rows of seats on each Montgomery bus were reserved for whites. Buses had “colored” sections for black people generally in the rear of the bus, although blacks comprised more than 75% of the ridership. The sections were not fixed but were determined by placement of a movable sign. Black people could sit in the middle rows until the white section filled; if more whites needed seats, blacks were to move to seats in the rear, stand, or, if there was no room, leave the bus. Black people could not sit across the aisle in the same row as white people. The driver could move the “colored” section sign, or remove it altogether. If white people were already sitting in the front, black people had to board at the front to pay the fare, then disembark and reenter through the rear door.

 

For years, the black community had complained that the situation was unfair. Parks said, “My resisting being mistreated on the bus did not begin with that particular arrest…I did a lot of walking in Montgomery.”

 

One day in 1943, Parks boarded the bus and paid the fare. She then moved to her seat but driver James F. Blake told her to follow city rules and enter the bus again from the back door. Parks exited the bus, but before she could re-board at the rear door, Blake drove off, leaving her to walk home in the rain.

 

Her refusal to move

After working all day, Parks boarded the Cleveland Avenue bus around 6 p.m., Thursday, December 1, 1955, in downtown Montgomery. She paid her fare and sat in an empty seat in the first row of back seats reserved for blacks in the “colored” section. Near the middle of the bus, her row was directly behind the ten seats reserved for white passengers. Initially, she did not notice that the bus driver was the same man, James F. Blake, who had left her in the rain in 1943. As the bus traveled along its regular route, all of the white-only seats in the bus filled up. The bus reached the third stop in front of the Empire Theater, and several white passengers boarded.

 

Blake noted that two or three white passengers were standing, as the front of the bus had filled to capacity. He moved the “colored” section sign behind Parks and demanded that four black people give up their seats in the middle section so that the white passengers could sit. Years later, in recalling the events of the day, Parks said, “When that white driver stepped back toward us, when he waved his hand and ordered us up and out of our seats, I felt a determination cover my body like a quilt on a winter night.”

 

By Parks’ account, Blake said, “Y’all better make it light on yourselves and let me have those seats.” Three of them complied. Parks said, “The driver wanted us to stand up, the four of us. We didn’t move at the beginning, but he says, ‘Let me have these seats.’ And the other three people moved, but I didn’t.” The black man sitting next to her gave up his seat.

 

Parks moved, but toward the window seat; she did not get up to move to the redesignated colored section. Blake said, “Why don’t you stand up?” Parks responded, “I don’t think I should have to stand up.” Blake called the police to arrest Parks. When recalling the incident for Eyes on the Prize, a 1987 public television series on the Civil Rights Movement, Parks said, “When he saw me still sitting, he asked if I was going to stand up, and I said, ‘No, I’m not.’ And he said, ‘Well, if you don’t stand up, I’m going to have to call the police and have you arrested.’ I said, ‘You may do that.'”

Eyes on the Prize – 01 – Awakenings 1954-1956

Published on Dec 2, 2013

Awakenings focuses on the catalytic events of 1954-1956. The Mississippi lynching of 14-year-old Emmett Till led to a widely publicized trial where a courageous black man took the stand and accused two white men of murder. In Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks refused to yield her bus seat to a white man and triggered a yearlong boycott that resulted in the desegregation of public buses. Ordinary citizens and local leaders joined the black struggle for freedom. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference was formed. In response, may white southerners closed ranks in opposition to the burgeoning black rights movement. Racial discrimination finally became a political issue.

 

 

Rosa Parks’ arrest
Booking photo of Parks
Police report on Parks, December 1, 1955, page 1
Police report on Parks, December 1, 1955, page 2
Fingerprint card of Parks

During a 1956 radio interview with Sydney Rogers in West Oakland several months after her arrest, Parks said she had decided, “I would have to know for once and for all what rights I had as a human being and a citizen.”

 

In her autobiography, My Story she said:

 

People always say that I didn’t give up my seat because I was tired, but that isn’t true. I was not tired physically, or no more tired than I usually was at the end of a working day. I was not old, although some people have an image of me as being old then. I was forty-two. No, the only tired I was, was tired of giving in.

 

When Parks refused to give up her seat, a police officer arrested her. As the officer took her away, she recalled that she asked, “Why do you push us around?” She remembered him saying, “I don’t know, but the law’s the law, and you’re under arrest.” She later said, “I only knew that, as I was being arrested, that it was the very last time that I would ever ride in humiliation of this kind…”

 

Parks was charged with a violation of Chapter 6, Section 11 segregation law of the Montgomery City code, although technically she had not taken a white-only seat; she had been in a colored section. Edgar Nixon, president of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP and leader of the Pullman Porters Union, and her friend Clifford Durr bailed Parks out of jail the next evening.

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Montgomery Bus Boycott

Nixon conferred with Jo Ann Robinson, an Alabama State College professor and member of the Women’s Political Council(WPC), about the Parks case. Robinson believed it important to seize the opportunity and stayed up all night mimeographing over 35,000 handbills announcing a bus boycott. The Women’s Political Council was the first group to officially endorse the boycott.

 

On Sunday, December 4, 1955, plans for the Montgomery Bus Boycott were announced at black churches in the area, and a front-page article in the Montgomery Advertiser helped spread the word. At a church rally that night, those attending agreed unanimously to continue the boycott until they were treated with the level of courtesy they expected, until black drivers were hired, and until seating in the middle of the bus was handled on a first-come basis.

 

The next day, Parks was tried on charges of disorderly conduct and violating a local ordinance. The trial lasted 30 minutes. After being found guilty and fined $10, plus $4 in court costs, Parks appealed her conviction and formally challenged the legality of racial segregation. In a 1992 interview with National Public Radio‘s Lynn Neary, Parks recalled:

 

I did not want to be mistreated, I did not want to be deprived of a seat that I had paid for. It was just time… there was opportunity for me to take a stand to express the way I felt about being treated in that manner. I had not planned to get arrested. I had plenty to do without having to end up in jail. But when I had to face that decision, I didn’t hesitate to do so because I felt that we had endured that too long. The more we gave in, the more we complied with that kind of treatment, the more oppressive it became.

 

On the day of Parks’ trial — December 5, 1955 — the WPC distributed the 35,000 leaflets. The handbill read:

 

“We are…asking every Negro to stay off the buses Monday in protest of the arrest and trial … You can afford to stay out of school for one day. If you work, take a cab, or walk. But please, children and grown-ups, don’t ride the bus at all on Monday. Please stay off the buses Monday.”

 

It rained that day, but the black community persevered in their boycott. Some rode in carpools, while others traveled in black-operated cabs that charged the same fare as the bus, 10 cents. Most of the remainder of the 40,000 black commuters walked, some as far as 20 miles (32 km).

 

That evening after the success of the one-day boycott, a group of 16 to 18 people gathered at the Mt. Zion AME Zion Church to discuss boycott strategies. At that time Parks was introduced but not asked to speak, despite a standing ovation and calls from the crowd for her to speak; when she asked if she should say something, the reply was, “Why, you’ve said enough.”

 

The group agreed that a new organization was needed to lead the boycott effort if it were to continue. Rev. Ralph Abernathy suggested the name “Montgomery Improvement Association” (MIA). The name was adopted, and the MIA was formed. Its members elected as their president Martin Luther King, Jr., a relative newcomer to Montgomery, who was a young and mostly unknown minister of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church.

 

That Monday night, 50 leaders of the African-American community gathered to discuss actions to respond to Parks’ arrest. Edgar Nixon, the president of the NAACP, said, “My God, look what segregation has put in my hands!”[32] Parks was considered the ideal plaintiff for a test case against city and state segregation laws, as she was seen as a responsible, mature woman with a good reputation. She was securely married and employed, was regarded as possessing a quiet and dignified demeanor, and was politically savvy. King said that Parks was regarded as “one of the finest citizens of Montgomery—not one of the finest Negro citizens, but one of the finest citizens of Montgomery.”

 

Parks’ court case was being slowed down in appeals through the Alabama courts on their way to a Federal appeal and the process could have taken years.Holding together a boycott for that length of time would have been a great strain. In the end, black residents of Montgomery continued the boycott for 381 days. Dozens of public buses stood idle for months, severely damaging the bus transit company’s finances, until the city repealed its law requiring segregation on public buses following the US Supreme Court ruling in Browder v. Gayle that it was unconstitutional. Parks was not included as a plaintiff in the Browder decision because the attorney Fred Gray concluded the courts would perceive they were attempting to circumvent her prosecution on her charges working their way through the Alabama state court system.

 

Parks played an important part in raising international awareness of the plight of African Americans and the civil rights struggle. King wrote in his 1958 bookStride Toward Freedom that Parks’ arrest was the catalyst rather than the cause of the protest: “The cause lay deep in the record of similar injustices.”[35] He wrote, “Actually, no one can understand the action of Mrs. Parks unless he realizes that eventually the cup of endurance runs over, and the human personality cries out, ‘I can take it no longer.

 

Later years

Rosa Parks Interview (Merv Griffin Show 1983)

Published on Jun 26, 2012

Civil Rights leader Rosa Parks tells Merv the famous story of her refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955 and her subsequent arrest— the event widely regarded as the spark which lit the flames of the Civil Rights Movement. She also talks about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Merv Griffin had over 5000 guests appear on his show from 1963-1986.

 

 

After her arrest, Parks became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement but suffered hardships as a result. Due to economic sanctions used against activists, she lost her job at the department store. Her husband quit his job after his boss forbade him to talk about his wife or the legal case. Parks traveled and spoke extensively about the issues.

 

In 1957, Raymond and Rosa Parks left Montgomery for Hampton, Virginia; mostly because she was unable to find work. She also disagreed with King and other leaders of Montgomery’s struggling civil rights movement about how to proceed. In Hampton, she found a job as a hostess in an inn at Hampton Institute, a historically black college.

 

Later that year, at the urging of her brother and sister-in-law in Detroit, Sylvester and Daisy McCauley, Rosa and Raymond Parks, and her mother moved north to join them. Parks worked as a seamstress until 1965.

 

That year, John Conyers, an African-American U.S. Representative, hired her as a secretary and receptionist for his congressional office in Detroit. She held this position until she retired in 1988.[6] In a telephone interview with CNN on October 24, 2005, Conyers recalled, “You treated her with deference because she was so quiet, so serene — just a very special person … There was only one Rosa Parks.”

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The 1970s was a decade of loss and suffering for Parks in her personal life. Her family was plagued with illness; she and her husband had suffered stomach ulcers for years and both required hospitalization. Then in their 60s, her brother Sylvester and husband were both diagnosed with cancer, as was her mother. Parks sometimes visited three hospitals in the same day. In spite of her fame and constant speaking engagements, Parks was not a wealthy woman. She donated most of the money from speaking to civil rights causes, and lived on her staff salary and her husband’s pension. Medical bills and time missed from work caused financial strain that required her to accept assistance from church groups and admirers.

 

Her husband died of throat cancer on August 19, 1977 and her brother, her only sibling, died of cancer that November. Her personal ordeals caused her to become removed from the civil rights movement. She learned from a newspaper of the death of Fannie Lou Hamer, once a close friend. Parks suffered two broken bones in a fall on an icy sidewalk, an injury which caused considerable and recurring pain. She decided to move with her mother into an apartment for senior citizens. There she nursed her mother Leona through the final stages of cancer and geriatric dementia until she died in 1979 at the age of 92.

 

In 1980, Parks—widowed and without immediate family—rededicated herself to civil rights and educational organizations. She co-founded the Rosa L. Parks Scholarship Foundation for college-bound high school seniors, to which she donated most of her speaker fees. In February 1987 she co-founded, with Elaine Eason Steele, the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development, an institute that runs the “Pathways to Freedom” bus tours which introduce young people to important civil rights and Underground Railroad sites throughout the country. Though her health declined as she entered her seventies, Parks continued to make many appearances and devoted considerable energy to these causes.

 

In 1992, Parks published Rosa Parks: My Story, an autobiography aimed at younger readers, which recounts her life leading to her decision to keep her seat on the bus. A few years later, she published her memoir, titled Quiet Strength (1995), which focuses on her faith in her life. On August 30, 1994, Joseph Skipper, an African-American drug addict, entered her home and attacked the 81-year-old Parks in the course of a robbery. The incident sparked outrage throughout the United States. After his arrest, Skipper said that he had not known he was in Parks’ home but recognized her after entering. Skipper asked, “Hey, aren’t you Rosa Parks?” to which she replied, “Yes.” She handed him $3 when he demanded money, and an additional $50 when he demanded more. Before fleeing, Skipper struck Parks in the face. Skipper was arrested and charged with various breaking and entering offenses against Parks and other neighborhood victims. He admitted guilt and, on August 8, 1995, was sentenced to eight to 15 years in prison. Suffering anxiety upon returning to her small central Detroit house following the ordeal, Parks moved into Riverfront Towers, a secure high-rise apartment building where she lived for the rest of her life.

 

In 1994 the Ku Klux Klan applied to sponsor a portion of United States Interstate 55 in St. Louis County and Jefferson County, Missouri, near  St. Louis, for cleanup (which allowed them to have signs stating that this section of highway was maintained by the organization). Since the state could not refuse the KKK’s sponsorship, the Missouri legislature voted to name the highway section the “Rosa Parks Highway”. When asked how she felt about this honor, she is reported to have commented, “It is always nice to be thought of.”

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In 1999 Parks filmed a cameo appearance for the television series Touched by an Angel. It was to be her last appearance on film; health problems made her increasingly an invalid.

 

In 2002 Parks received an eviction notice from her $1800 per month apartment due to non-payment of rent. Parks was incapable of managing her own financial affairs by this time due to age-related physical and mental decline. Her rent was paid from a collection taken by Hartford Memorial Baptist Church in Detroit. When her rent became delinquent and her impending eviction was highly publicized in 2004, executives of the ownership company announced they had forgiven the back rent and would allow Parks, by then 91 and in extremely poor health, to live rent free in the building for the remainder of her life. Her heirs and various interest organizations alleged at the time that her financial affairs had been mismanaged.

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Legacy and honors

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  • 2000,
    • her home state awarded her the Alabama Academy of Honor,
    • she receives the first Governor’s Medal of Honor for Extraordinary Courage.
    • She was awarded two dozen honorary doctorates from universities worldwide
    • She is made an honorary member of the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority.
    • the Rosa Parks Library and Museum on the campus of Troy University in Montgomery was dedicated to her.

 

 

  • 2005,
    • On October 30, 2005 President George W. Bush issued a proclamation ordering that all flags on U.S. public areas both within the country and abroad be flown at half-staff on the day of Parks’ funeral.
    • Metro Transit in King County, Washington placed posters and stickers dedicating the first forward-facing seat of all its buses in Parks’ memory shortly after her death,
    • the American Public Transportation Association declared December 1, 2005, the 50th anniversary of her arrest, to be a “National Transit Tribute to Rosa Parks Day”.
    • On that anniversary, President George W. Bush signed Pub.L. 109–116, directing that a statue of Parks be placed in the United States Capitol’s National Statuary Hall. In signing the resolution directing the Joint Commission on the Library to do so, the President stated:

      By placing her statue in the heart of the nation’s Capitol, we commemorate her work for a more perfect union, and we commit ourselves to continue to struggle for justice for every American.

    • Portion of Interstate 96 in Detroit was renamed by the state legislature as the Rosa Parks Memorial Highway in December 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

  • 2012, President Barack Obama visited the famous Rosa Parks bus at the Henry Ford Museum after an event in Dearborn, Michigan, April 18, 2012.

 

  • 2012, A street in West Valley City, Utah‘s second largest city, leading to the Utah Cultural Celebration Center is renamed Rosa Parks Drive.

 

  • 2013,
    • On February 1, President Barack Obama proclaimed February 4, 2013, as the “100th Anniversary of the Birth of Rosa Parks.” He called “upon all Americans to observe this day with appropriate service, community, and education programs to honor Rosa Parks’s enduring legacy.”
    • On February 4, to celebrate Rosa Parks’ 100th birthday, the Henry Ford Museum declared the day a “National Day of Courage” with 12 hours of virtual and on-site activities featuring nationally recognized speakers, musical and dramatic interpretative performances, a panel presentation of Rosa’s Storyand a reading of the tale Quiet Strength. The actual bus on which Rosa Parks sat was made available for the public to board and sit in the seat that Rosa Parks refused to give up.
    • On February 4, 2,000 birthday wishes gathered from people throughout the United States were transformed into 200 graphics messages at a celebration held on her 100th Birthday at the Davis Theater for the Performing Arts in Montgomery, Alabama. This was the 100th Birthday Wishes Project managed by the Rosa Parks Museum at Troy University and the Mobile Studio and was also a declared event by the Senate.
    • During both events the USPS unveiled a postage stamp in her honor.
    • On February 27, Parks became the first African American woman to have her likeness depicted in National Statuary Hall. The monument, created by sculptor Eugene Daub, is a part of the Capitol Art Collection among nine other females featured in the National Statuary Hall Collection.
Parks and U.S. President Bill Clinton

Parks and U.S. President Bill Clinton

Rosa Parks Transit Center, 360 Michigan Avenue, Detroit, Michigan.

Rosa Parks Transit Center, 360 Michigan Avenue, Detroit, Michigan.

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The Silence Of Barack Hussein Obama.


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The President Is Silent AND Weak On Ferguson, Missouri AND Black Genocide.

 

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I’ve said before that this Black President is too quite while Black men and women are being systematically murdered. Unarmed Black men & women are being killed for no other reason than being Black men & women. This Black Genocide did not start under Barack Hussein Obama’s administration, thats a fact. MY issue is that it is allowed to continue under Barack Hussein Obama’s reign and he is silent.

 

Giving a speech asking for calm and telling a people that are being exterminated, to be lawful and maintain peace, while they are being gassed, arrested for protesting peacefully and having weapons aimed at them…as you tell them to be calm, is asinine. I am sick of watching good Americans of all skin tones, all walks of life and from all parts of the globe in Ferguson, Missouri, everyday and night putting their lives on the line for peaceful protest, while Barack Hussein Obama sits in the White House doing jack shit.

I am disgusted by this man.

I am disgusted by this man.

It is simply beyond my mind to comprehend why Barack allows people to silence him when it comes to the murder of unarmed citizens of his nation. Why would Barack remain shut mouthed while knowing innocent unarmed Black American citizen are being killed by racist, control freak, testosterone fueled law enforcement officers? What or whom would wield that much power to make a Black President remain mute on this issue?

 

Now some have argued that Barack has not remained quiet because he has given pressers on the Ferguson riots and unrest. Bull shit. His press conferences have been lip service to Gov. Jay Nixon and the rest of the St. Louis County Just”US” system. Telling a people who have been victimized because of their skin color to remain calm and lawful….as they continue to bury their sons, daughters, cousins, grandbabies, nephews, nieces, brothers, sisters, aunts and uncles, are just stupid words with no meaning.

FERGcarlson stop killing us

I was once a blind follower of our first Black President. I voted for Barack twice, and was proud of that fact. I became a non supporter the day he didn’t go to Ferguson to offer his comfort to the Michael Brown family and tell them he would see that things were done to insure their son’s death was not the “new normal”, that Mike Mike didn’t die in vain. That conversation with Michael Brown’s parents and supporters has never happened. No visit to Ferguson….like he made to Aurora, Colorado after James Holmes slaughtered 12 people in a theater, and injured 70 others.

 

Hurricane victims, mudslide victims, even Sandy Hook Elementary school shooting victims , all got words of comfort from this President. Not one single family member of the many unarmed Black Americans murdered by law enforcement, has heard a word from our President. Not one. Empty useless pre-written speeches asking for calm do not replace words of comfort & support when your child is laying on a slab in the morgue and is being labeled a thug, while James Holmes is labeled a man with mental issues for killing 12 American citizens in that Aurora theater.

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Sending AG Eric Holder to Ferguson for a day of photo-ops is not what is needed nor is it what will satisfy Ferguson. Putting the FBI on the ground in Ferguson for 2 days is fixing nothing in racist Missouri. Going there to show solidarity with people who voted for you, now thats what should have been done, and that might even have prevented some of this unrest in Ferguson. To say Barack has disappointed me is an gross understatement. This entire administration is silent. Black politicians are silent. Black leaders are silent. Black celebrities are silent. BUT the St. Louis Rams are not silent.

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How about it Barack, how about a little hands up support for Ferguson and Black Genocide?

 

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President Obama to hold meetings on Ferguson

We lack strong brave intelligent Black male leadership such as this in 2014……

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TheObamaCrat Wake-Up Call™ For HuMpDaY The 2nd Of July: Lunch With Economists. Meet with Treasury Secretary Jack Lew.


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White House Schedule – July 2, 2014

 

President Barack Obama on Wednesday lunches with economists and meets with Treasury Secretary Jack Lew.

 

In the afternoon, the President will host top economists for lunch to discuss ways to accelerate economic growth, expand opportunity, and improve the competitiveness of the American economy. The Vice President will also attend. This meeting in the Old Family Dining Room will be closed press.

 

Later in the afternoon, the President and the Vice President will meet with Secretary of the Treasury Lew in the Oval Office. This meeting is closed press.

 

Afterward, the President and the Vice President will receive the Presidential Daily Briefing in the Oval Office. This meeting is closed press.

 

 

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THE WHITE HOUSE
Office of the Press Secretary
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
HuMpDaY JULY 2nd, 2014

 

THE WHITE HOUSE SCHEDULE
HuMpDaY July 2nd, 2014

 

HuMpDaY July 2nd, 2014  All Times ET

 

 

12:00 PM: THE PRESIDENT meets with economists for lunch; THE VICE PRESIDENT also attends. Old Family Dining Room.

 

 

Briefing Schedule, 12:30 PM: Press Briefing by Press Secretary Josh Earnest, The Brady Press Briefing Room.

 

 

4:05 PM: THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT meet with Secretary of the Treasury Lew. Oval Office.

 

 

4:50 PM: THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT receive the Presidential Daily Briefing. Oval Office.

 

 

12:30 PM: Press Briefing by Press Secretary Josh Earnest, The Brady Press Briefing Room.

 

 

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Today In 1964: Pres. Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act into law and gives a pen to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

 

Uploaded on Jul 2, 2011

On July 2, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act into law. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. received one of the pens.

 

 

 

On this day in 1968, Martin Luther King Jr was assassinated at the Lorraine Hotel in Memphis Tennessee.

 

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Fuel Depot crash in Houston caught on camera

 

Published on Jul 2, 2014

Gas station hit and run: Fuel Depot crash in Houston caught on camera (VIDEO).
(KPRC/NBC NewsChannel) Surveillance cameras were rolling outside the Fuel Depot gas station in Houston, Texas when a driver hit two men and kept going.

 

“When I turned around, it was a lady coming full speed to take us out,” said Marcus Chukuwuu, one of the men who was hit. “She took off. She hit us both and just kept going.”

 

Chukuwuu said and his boss stopped at the gas station to fill up after work. They were standing at one pump when a female driver tried backing into the space next to them. The video shows she came close to men, and they said they thought she was going to hit them. So one of the men told her to be careful.

 

“He was like, ‘Don’t kill me.’ And she was like, ‘If I wanted to kill you I’d shoot you, I won’t run you over,'” Chukuwuu said.

 

Chukuwuu and his boss were both taken to the hospital with cuts and bruises. They’re going to be OK but are hoping police find the driver so she can face charges.

 

 

 

How an ER could reject you for buying candy

 

Published on Jul 2, 2014

Hospitals are the next Big Data collectors, aggregating consumer data to build algorithms to get more involved in patients’ health. The Carolinas Healthcare System, the biggest hospital chain in the Carolinas, is plugging data for 2 million people into algorithms to identify high-risk patients. And in Pennsylvania, the biggest healthcare system is already plugging in household and demographic data. With this information, doctors are starting to try to figure out how to intervene in patients’ lives before they even need care – and it’s all for their bottom line, not our health. The Resident discusses.

 

 

 

Serena Williams Health Scare During Wimbledon Doubles Match

 

Published on Jul 2, 2014

Tennis star becomes dizzy and disoriented in the middle of a match with sister Venus.

 

 

 

President Obama Speaks on the Economy

July 01, 2014 | 15:42 | Public Domain

 

From the Georgetown Waterfront in Washington, D.C., President Obama delivers remarks on the economy.

 

 

 

Press Briefing

July 01, 2014 | 56:49 | Public Domain

 

White House Press Briefings are conducted most weekdays from the James S. Brady Press Briefing Room in the West Wing.

 

 

 

President Obama Holds a Cabinet Meeting

July 01, 2014 | 5:53 | Public Domain

 

President Obama delivers remarks before a Cabinet meeting at the White House.

 

 

 

Speeches and Remarks

 

Remarks As Prepared for Delivery by Dr. Jill Biden at Shalom Community School in Zambia

 

Remarks by the President on the Economy

 

Remarks by the First Lady to the American School Counselor Association Annual Conference — Orlando, Florida

 

Remarks by the President Before Cabinet Meeting

 

 

Statements and Releases

 

White House Report: Missed Opportunities and the Consequences of State Decisions Not to Expand Medicaid

 

Dr. Jill Biden Arrives in Lusaka, Zambia to Highlight Women’s Empowerment

 

Letter from the President — Change in Export Controls for High Performance Computers

 

 

voteriders

 

VoteRiders

 

Mission

VoteRiders is a non-partisan, 501(c)(3) non-profit organization whose mission is to ensure that all citizens are able to exercise their right to vote. Through resources and media exposure, VoteRiders supports on-the-ground organizations that assist citizens to secure their voter ID and inspires local volunteers and communities to sustain such programs and galvanize others to emulate these efforts.

 

How We Started

 

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Knowing that millions of potential voters may be disenfranchised by the increasing number of stringent voter ID laws, Kathleen Unger decided to take action. With her extensive professional and volunteer experience in the non-profit sector, Ms. Unger decided to start her own non-profit dedicated to helping citizens to obtain their voter ID so they can exercise their fundamental right to vote. It was important to Ms. Unger that VoteRiders not duplicate what other organizations are doing to protect the right to vote. Thus, VoteRiders was founded in April 2012.

 

More here

 

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Link

Follow VoteRiders on Twitter

 

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The Twitter Storm™


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The Twitter Storm™ 

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